# Positive Solutions of Singular Initial-Boundary Value Problems to Second-Order Functional Differential Equations

- Fengfei Jin
^{1}and - Baoqiang Yan
^{1}Email author

**2008**:457028

**DOI: **10.1155/2008/457028

© F. Jin and B. Yan. 2008

**Received: **23 August 2007

**Accepted: **5 August 2008

**Published: **26 August 2008

## Abstract

Positive solutions to the singular initial-boundary value problems are obtained by applying the Schauder fixed-point theorem, where on and may be singular at and . As an application, an example is given to demonstrate our result.

## 1. Introduction

where and the existence of positive solutions to (1.1) is obtained. When in (1.1), Agarwal and O'Regan in [5], Lin and Xu in [6] discussed the existence of positive solutions to (1.1) also. We notice that the nonlinearities in all the above-mentioned references depend on .

The more difficult case is that the term depends on for second-order functional differential equations with delay. When has no singularity at and , there are many results on the following (1.2) (see [7–9] and references therein). Up to now, to our knowledge, there are fewer results on (1.2) when the term is allowed to possess singularity for the term at and , which is of more actual significance.

where . By Leray-Schauder fixed-point theorem, the existence of positive solutions to (1.2) is obtained when is singular at and .

For and , let and . Then, and are Banach spaces. Let and . Obviously, and are cones in and respectively. Now, we give a new definition.

Deffinition.

is said to be singular at for when satisfies for and is said to be singular at for when satisfies for .

And one defines some functions which one has to use in this paper.

where is a Green's function. It is clear that for and on

We now introduce the definition of a solution to IBVP(1.2).

Deffinition.

A function is said to be a solution to IBVP(1.2) if it satisfies the following conditions:

(1) is continuous and nonnegative on ;

(2) ;

(3) and exist on ;

(4) is Lebesgue integrable on ;

(5) for .

Furthermore, a solution is said to be positive if on .

for all solutions, , to IBVP(1.2), where . For , let on throughout this paper. Obviously, and for all .

Throughout this paper, we assume the following hypotheses hold.

(H_{1})
is continuous on
.

_{2}) There exists , such that

Lemma 1.3.

*Assume that (H*

_{ 1 }

*)-(H*

_{ 2 }

*) hold, then there exists a*

*, such that*

for all solutions, , to (1.2).

Proof.

which contradicts the assumption that and hence the claim is true provided is suitably small.

Remark 1.4.

holds provided that is sufficiently small, where is in Lemma 1.3.

Lemma 1.5 (see [7]).

Let
be the Banach space and let *X* be any nonempty, convex, closed, and bounded subset of
. If
is a continuous mapping of
into itself and
is relatively compact, then the mapping
has at least one fixed point (i.e., there exists an
with
) .

Using Lemma 1.5, we present the existence of at least one positive solution to (1.2) when is singular at and (notice the new Definition 1.1). To some extent, our paper complements and generalizes these in [1–6, 8–10].

## 2. Main Results

Theorem 2.1.

*Assume that (H*
_{
1
}
*)–(H*
_{
3
}
*) hold. Then, the IBVP( 1.2 ) has at least one positive solution.*

Proof.

Since , we can choose an such that

It is obvious that satisfies the hypotheses and .

Since on , there are the following three cases.

Case 1.

for all .

which contradicts (2.7).

Case 2.

There exists a such that and .

which contradicts (2.7).

Case 3.

There exists a such that and .

which contradicts (2.7).

To prove the existence of positive solutions to IBVP(2.5), we seek to transform (2.5) into an integral equation via the use of Green's function and then find a positive solution by using Lemma 1.5.

Together with the definition of , we get .

which implies that is integrable on .

where is a constant number.

Since on , the above inequality holds for .

Thus, is a relative compact subset of . That is, is a compact operator.

We are now going to prove that the mapping is continuous on .

that is, the claim is true.

which shows that the mapping is continuous on .

Thus, the solution of IBVP(2.5) is also the one of (1.2). The proof is complete.

## 3. Application

Example 3.1.

where .

## 4. Conclusion

Equation (3.1) has at least one positive solution.

Now, we will check that hold in (3.1).

It is obvious that is nonincreasing and is nondecreasing.

Now, we will prove that there exists such that is decreasing on .

From the continuity of , we can find such that on . Then, on . That is, is decreasing on .

which implies that holds.

So, from Theorem 2.1, IBVP(3.1) has at least one positive solution.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

The research was supported by NNSF of China (10571111) and the fund of Shandong Education Committee (J07WH08).

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Erbe LH, Kong Q:
**Boundary value problems for singular second-order functional differential equations.***Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*1994,**53**(3):377-388. 10.1016/0377-0427(94)90065-5MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Jiang D, Wang J:
**On boundary value problems for singular second-order functional differential equations.***Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*2000,**116**(2):231-241. 10.1016/S0377-0427(99)00314-3MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Weng P, Jiang D:
**Multiple positive solutions for boundary value problem of second order singular functional differential equations.***Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica*2000,**23**(1):99-107.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Weng P, Jiang D:
**Existence of positive solutions for boundary value problem of second-order FDE.***Computers & Mathematics with Applications*1999,**37**(10):1-9. 10.1016/S0898-1221(99)00120-0MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Agarwal RP, O'Regan D:
**Singular boundary value problems for superlinear second order ordinary and delay differential equations.***Journal of Differential Equations*1996,**130**(2):333-355. 10.1006/jdeq.1996.0147MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Lin X, Xu X:
**Singular semipositone boundary value problems of second order delay differential equations.***Acta Mathematica Scientia*2005,**25**(4):496-502.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Agarwal RP, Philos ChG, Tsamatos PCh:
**Global solutions of a singular initial value problem to second order nonlinear delay differential equations.***Mathematical and Computer Modelling*2006,**43**(7-8):854-869. 10.1016/j.mcm.2005.12.005MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Henderso J (Ed):
*Boundary Value Problems for Functional Differential Equations*. World Scientific, River Edge, NJ, USA; 1995:x+306.Google Scholar - Kolmanovskii VB, Myshkis AD:
*Introduction to the Theory and Applications of Functional-Differential Equations*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; 1999.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Bai C, Fang J:
**On positive solutions of boundary value problems for second-order functional differential equations on infinite intervals.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2003,**282**(2):711-731. 10.1016/S0022-247X(03)00246-4MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.