- Changxiu Song
^{1}Email author and - Xuejun Gao
^{1}

**2011**:279752

**DOI: **10.1155/2011/279752

© C. Song and X. Gao. 2011

**Received: **31 March 2010

**Accepted: **9 December 2010

**Published: **15 December 2010

## Abstract

## 1. Introduction

Let be a closed nonempty subset of , and let have the subspace topology inherited from the Euclidean topology on . In some of the current literature, is called a time scale (or measure chain). For notation, we shall use the convention that, for each interval of of , will denote time scales interval, that is, .

where is the -Laplacian operator, that is, , , , where ; and

the function is left dense continuous (i.e., and does not vanish identically on any closed subinterval of . Here, denotes the set of all left dense continuous functions from to ,

-Laplacian problems with two-, three-, m-point boundary conditions for ordinary differential equations and finite difference equations have been studied extensively, for example see [1–4] and references therein. However, there are not many concerning the -Laplacian problems on time scales, especially for -Laplacian functional dynamic equations on time scales.

The motivations for the present work stems from many recent investigations in [5–8] and references therein. Especially, Kaufmann and Raffoul [8] considered a nonlinear functional dynamic equation on a time scale and obtained sufficient conditions for the existence of positive solutions. In this paper, we apply the twin fixed-point theorem to obtain at least two positive solutions of boundary value problem (BVP for short) (1.1) when growth conditions are imposed on . Finally, we present two corollaries, which show that under the assumptions that is superlinear or sublinear, BVP (1.1) has at least two positive solutions.

The following twin fixed-point lemma due to [9] will play an important role in the proof of our results.

Lemma 1.1.

and

## 2. Positive Solutions

Let be endowed with the norm and is concave and nonnegative valued on , and .

Clearly, is a Banach space with the norm and is a cone in . For each , extend to with for .

Then, denotes a positive solution of BVP (1.1).

It follows from (2.2) that

Lemma 2.1.

Let be defined by (2.2). If , then

(ii) is completely continuous.

The proof is similar to the proofs of Lemma 2.3 and Theorem 3.1 in [7], and is omitted.

Throughout this paper, we assume and .

Theorem 2.2.

Assume satisfies the following conditions:

Proof.

By the definition of operator and its properties, it suffices to show that the conditions of Lemma 1.1 hold with respect to .

First, we verify that implies .

Secondly, we prove that implies .

which are twin positive solutions of BVP (1.1). The proof is complete.

In analogy to Theorem 2.2, we have the following result.

Theorem 2.3.

Assume satisfies the following conditions:

Now, we give theorems, which may be considered as the corollaries of Theorems 2.2 and 2.3.

Theorem 2.4.

If the following conditions are satisfied:

Proof.

We get now , and then the conditions in Theorem 2.2 are all satisfied. By Theorem 2.2, BVP (1.1) has at least two positive solutions. The proof is complete.

Theorem 2.5.

If the following conditions are satisfied:

The proof is similar to that of Theorem 2.4 and we omitted it.

The following Corollaries are obvious.

Corollary 2.6.

If the following conditions are satisfied:

Corollary 2.7.

If the following conditions are satisfied:

## 3. Example

Example 3.1.

Then all conditions of Theorem 2.3 hold. Thus, with Theorem 2.3, the BVP (3.1) has at least two positive solutions.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgment

This paper is supported by Grants nos. (10871052) and (10901060) from the NNSF of China, and by Grant (no. 10151009001000032) from the NSF of Guangdong.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Avery R, Henderson J: Existence of three positive pseudo-symmetric solutions for a one-dimensional
*p*-Laplacian.*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2003, 277(2):395-404. 10.1016/S0022-247X(02)00308-6View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Liu Y, Ge W: Twin positive solutions of boundary value problems for finite difference equations with
*p*-Laplacian operator.*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2003, 278(2):551-561. 10.1016/S0022-247X(03)00018-0View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Cabada A: Extremal solutions for the difference
*ϕ*-Laplacian problem with nonlinear functional boundary conditions.*Computers & Mathematics with Applications*2001, 42(3–5):593-601.View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Wong F-H: Existence of positive solutions for
*m*-Laplacian boundary value problems.*Applied Mathematics Letters*1999, 12(3):11-17. 10.1016/S0893-9659(98)00164-5View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Kaufmann ER: Positive solutions of a three-point boundary-value problem on a time scale.
*Electronic Journal of Differential Equations*2003, 82: 1-11.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar - He Z: Double positive solutions of three-point boundary value problems for
*p*-Laplacian dynamic equations on time scales.*Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*2005, 182(2):304-315. 10.1016/j.cam.2004.12.012View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Bian L, He X, Sun H: Multiple positive solutions of
*m*-point BVPs for third-order*p*-Laplacian dynamic equaitons on time scales.*Advance in Difference Equations*2009, 2009:-12.Google Scholar - Kaufmann ER, Raffoul YN: Positive solutions for a nonlinear functional dynamic equation on a time scale.
*Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2005, 62(7):1267-1276. 10.1016/j.na.2005.04.031View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Avery RI, Chyan CJ, Henderson J: Twin solutions of boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations and finite difference equations.
*Computers & Mathematics with Applications*2001, 42(3–5):695-704.View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.