Open Access

Three solutions for a class of quasilinear elliptic systems involving the p(x)-Laplace operator

Boundary Value Problems20122012:30

DOI: 10.1186/1687-2770-2012-30

Received: 6 October 2011

Accepted: 7 March 2012

Published: 7 March 2012

Abstract

The existence of at least three weak solutions is established for a class of quasilinear elliptic systems involving the p(x)-Laplace operator with Neumann boundary condition. The technical approach is mainly based on a three critical points theorem due to Ricceri.

MSC: 35D05; 35J60; 58E05.

Keywords

p(x)-Laplacian Sobolev space three critical points theorem

1 Introduction

In this article, we consider the problem of the type
- Δ p ( x ) u + e p ( x ) u p ( x ) - 2 u = λ F u ( x , u , v ) + μ G u ( x , u , v ) , x Ω , - Δ q ( x ) v + e p ( x ) v q ( x ) - 2 v = λ F v ( x , u , v ) + μ G v ( x , u , v ) , x Ω , u v = v v = 0 x Ω , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ1_HTML.gif
(1)

where Ω R N (N ≥ 2) is a bounded domain with boundary of class C1. ν is the outer unit normal to ∂Ω, λ, μ ≥ 0 are real numbers. p ( x ) , q ( x ) C 0 Ω ̄ https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq1_HTML.gif with N < p : = inf x Ω ¯ p ( x ) p + : = sup x Ω ¯ p ( x ) , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq2_HTML.gif, N < q-q+, F : Ω × R × RR is a function such that F(·, s, t) is measurable in Ω for all (s, t) R × R and F(x, ·, ·) is C1 in R × R for a.e. x Ω, F s denotes the partial derivative of F with respect to s. We assume G(x,s,t) and e p (x),e q (x) satisfy the following conditions:

(G) G : Ω × R × RR is a Carathéodory function, sup{|s|≤θ,|t|≤ϑ}|G(·,s,t)| L1(Ω) for all θ, ϑ > 0;
  1. (E)

    e p (x),e q (x) L(Ω) and ess infΩ e p (x), ess infΩ e q (x) > 0, we denote e p 1 = ∫Ω e p (x)dx and e q 1 = ∫Ωe q (x)dx.

     

It is well known that the operator -Δp(x)= -div(|u|p(x)-2u) is called p(x)-Laplacian and the corresponding problem is called a variable exponent elliptic systems. The study of differential equations and variational problems with nonstandard p(x)-growth conditions has been attracting attention of many authors in the last two decades. It arises from nonlinear elasticity theory, electro-rheological fluids, etc. see [1, 2], many results have been obtained on this kind of problems, for example [39]. For the special case, p(x) ≡ p(a constant), (1.1) becomes the well known p-Laplacian problem. There have been many papers on this class of problems, see [1019] and the reference therein.

Recently, many papers have appeared in which the technical approach adopted is based on the three critical points theorem obtained by Ricceri [16]. We cite papers [2023], where the authors established the existence of at least three weak solutions to the problems with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary value conditions. Li and Tang in [24] obtained the existence of at least three weak solutions to problem (1) when p(x) ≡ p with Dirichlet boundary value conditions. El Manouni and Kbiri Alaoui [25] obtained the existence of at least three solutions of system (1) when p(x) ≡ p in Ω by the three critical points theorem obtained by Ricceri [26].

The main purpose of the present paper is to prove the existence of at least three solutions of problem (1). We study problem (1) by using the three critical points theorem by Ricceri [26] too. On the basis of [27], we state an equivalent formulation of the three critical points theorem in [26] as follows.

Theorem 1. Let X be a reflexive real Banach space, Φ : XR a continuously Gâteaux differentiable and sequentially weakly lower semicontinuous C1 functional, bounded on each bounded subset of X, whose Gâteaux derivative admits a continuous inverse on X*; Ψ : XR a C1 functional with compact Gâteaux derivative. Assume that

(i) limu→∞(Φ(u) + λ Ψ(u)) = ∞ for all λ > 0; and there are r R and u0, u1 X such that:

(ii) Φ(u0) < r < Φ(u1);

(iii) inf u Φ 1 ( ( , r ] ) Ψ ( u ) > ( Φ ( u 1 ) r ) Ψ ( u 0 ) + ( r Φ ( u 0 ) ) Ψ ( u 1 ) Φ ( u 1 ) Φ ( u 0 ) . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq3_HTML.gif.

Then there exists a non-empty open set Λ [0, ∞) and a positive real number ρ with the following property: for each λ Λ and every C1 functional J : XR with compact Gâteaux derivative, there exists σ > 0 such that for each μ [0, σ], the equation
Φ ( u ) + λ Ψ ( u ) + μ J ( u ) = 0 https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ2_HTML.gif
(2)

has at least three solutions in X whose norms are less than ρ.

The paper is organized as follows. In section 2, we recall some facts that will be needed in the paper. In section 3, we establish our main result.

2 Notations and preliminaries

In order to deal with p(x)-Laplacian problem, we need some theories on spaces Lp(x)(Ω), W1,p(x)(Ω) and properties of p(x)-Laplacian which we will use later (see [1, 5, 28, 29]).

We denote
L p ( x ) ( Ω ) = u | u is a measurable real - valued function on Ω , Ω u ( x ) p ( x ) d x < . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equa_HTML.gif
We can introduce a norm on Lp(x)(Ω) by
u p ( x ) = inf λ > 0 | Ω u ( x ) λ p ( x ) d x 1 . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equb_HTML.gif

and (Lp(x)(Ω), | · |p(x)) becomes a Banach space, and we call it variable exponent Lebesgue space.

The space W1,p(x)(Ω) is defined by
W 1 , p ( x ) ( Ω ) = u L p ( x ) ( Ω ) | u L p ( x ) ( Ω ) , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equc_HTML.gif
and it can be equipped with the norm
u p ( x ) = u p ( x ) + u p ( x ) , u W 1 , p ( x ) ( Ω ) , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equd_HTML.gif

and we call it variable exponent Sobolev space. From [5], we know that spaces Lp(x)(Ω) and W1,p(x)(Ω) are separable, reflexive and uniform convex Banach spaces.

When e p (x) satisfy (E), we define
L e p ( x ) p ( x ) ( Ω ) = u | u is a measurable real - valued function, Ω e p ( x ) u ( x ) p ( x ) d x < , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Eque_HTML.gif
with the norm
u ( p ( x ) , e p ( x ) ) = inf λ > 0 | Ω e p ( x ) u ( x ) λ p ( x ) d x 1 , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equf_HTML.gif
then L e p ( x ) p ( x ) ( Ω ) https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq4_HTML.gif is a Banach space. For any u W1,p(x)(Ω), define
u e p = inf λ > 0 | Ω u ( x ) λ p ( x ) + e p ( x ) u ( x ) λ p ( x ) d x 1 . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equg_HTML.gif

Then it is easy to see that u e p https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq5_HTML.gif is a norm on W1,p(x)(Ω) equivalent to up(x). In the following, we will use e p https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq6_HTML.gif to instead of · p(x)on W1,p(x)(Ω). Similarly, we use e p https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq6_HTML.gif to instead of · q(x)on W1,q(x)(Ω).

Proposition 1. (see [1, 5]) The conjugate space of Lp(x)(Ω) is L p 0 ( x ) ( Ω ) https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq7_HTML.gif, where 1 p ( x ) + 1 p 0 ( x ) = 1 https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq8_HTML.gif. For any u Lp(x)(Ω) and v L p 0 ( x ) ( Ω ) https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq9_HTML.gif, we have
Ω u v d x 1 p - + 1 p 0 - u p ( x ) v p 0 ( x ) 2 u p ( x ) v p 0 ( x ) . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equh_HTML.gif

Proposition 2. (see [1, 5])If we denote ρ(u) = ∫Ω |u|p(x)dx, u Lp(x)(Ω), then

(i) |u|p(x)< 1(= 1; > 1) ρ (u) < 1(= 1; > 1);

(ii) u p ( x ) > 1 u p ( x ) p - ρ ( u ) u p ( x ) p + ; u p ( x ) < 1 u p ( x ) p + ρ ( u ) u p ( x ) p - ; https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq10_HTML.gif

(iii) |u|p(x)→ 0(∞) ρ (u) → 0(∞).

From Proposition 2, the following inequalities hold:
u e p p - Ω u ( x ) p ( x ) + e p ( x ) u ( x ) p ( x ) d x u e p p + , if u e p 1 ; https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ3_HTML.gif
(3)
u e p p + Ω u ( x ) p ( x ) + e p ( x ) u ( x ) p ( x ) d x u e p p - , if u e p 1 . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ4_HTML.gif
(4)

Proposition 3.If Ω R N is a bounded domain, then the imbedding W 1 , p ( x ) ( Ω ) C 0 ( Ω ̄ ) https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq11_HTML.gif is compact whenever N < p-.

Proof. It is well know that W 1 , p ( x ) ( Ω ) W 1 , p - ( Ω ̄ ) https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq12_HTML.gif is a continuous embedding, and the embedding W 1 , p - ( Ω ) C 0 ( Ω ̄ ) https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq13_HTML.gif is compact when N < p- and Ω is bounded. So we obtain the embedding W 1 , p ( x ) ( Ω ) C 0 ( Ω ̄ ) https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq11_HTML.gif is compact whenever N < p-.

From now on, we denote X by W1,p(x)(Ω) × W1,q(x)(Ω) with the norm
z = u e p + v e p for any z = ( u , v ) X . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equi_HTML.gif

Then X is a separable and reflexive Banach spaces. Naturally, we denote X* by the space (W1,p(x))*(Ω) × (W1,q(x))*(Ω), the dual space of X.

From Proposition 3, we know that when p-,q- > N, the embedding x C 0 ( Ω ̄ ) × C 0 ( Ω ̄ ) https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq14_HTML.gif is compact, there exist a positive constant c such that
z = u + v = sup x Ω ̄ u ( x ) + sup x Ω ̄ v ( x ) c z . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ5_HTML.gif
(5)

3 Existence of three solutions

We define Φ, Ψ, J : XR by
Φ ( z ) = Ω 1 p ( x ) u ( x ) p ( x ) + e p ( x ) u ( x ) p ( x ) d x + Ω 1 q ( x ) v ( x ) q ( x ) + e p ( x ) v ( x ) q ( x ) d x , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ6_HTML.gif
(6)
Ψ ( z ) = - Ω F ( x , u , v ) d x , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ7_HTML.gif
(7)
J ( z ) = Ω G ( x , u , v ) d x . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ8_HTML.gif
(8)
Then for any (ζ,η) X,
Φ ( z ) , ( ζ , η ) = Ω u p ( x ) - 2 u ζ + e p ( x ) u p ( x ) - 2 u ζ d x + Ω v q ( x ) - 2 v η + e q ( x ) v q ( x ) - 2 v η d x z X , Ψ ( z ) , ( ζ , η ) = Ω F u ( x , u , v ) ζ d x - Ω F v ( x , u , v ) η d x , z X . J ( z ) , ( ζ , η ) = Ω G u ( x , u , v ) ζ d x - Ω G v ( x , u , v ) η d x , z X . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equj_HTML.gif
We say that z = (u, v) X is a weak solution of problem (1) if for any (ζ, η) X
Ψ ( z ) , ( ζ , η ) + λ Ψ ( z ) , ( ζ , η ) + μ ( J ( z ) , ( ζ , η ) ) = 0 . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equk_HTML.gif

Thus, we deduce that z X is a weak solution of (1) if z is a solution of (2). It follows that we can seek for weak solutions of (1) by applying Theorem 1.

We first give the following result.

Lemma 1. If Φ is defined in (6), then (Φ')-1 : X* → X exists and it is continuous.

Proof. First, we show that Φ' is uniformly monotone. In fact, for any ζ, η R N , we have the following inequality (see [30]):
ζ p - 2 ζ - η p - 2 η ( ζ - η ) 1 2 p ζ - η , p 2 . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equl_HTML.gif
Thus, we deduce that
( Φ ( z 1 ) Φ ( z 2 ) , z 1 z 2 ) min { 1 2 p + , 1 2 q + } ( min { u 1 u 2 e p p + , u 1 u 2 e p p } + min { v 1 v 2 e q q + , v 1 v 2 e q q } ) , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equm_HTML.gif

for any z1 = (u1, v1), z2 = (u2, v2) X, i.e.,Φ' is uniformly monotone.

From (3), (4), we can see that for any z X, we have that
( Φ ( z ) , z ) z min { u e p p + , | u | | e p p } + min { v e p p + , v e p p } u e p + v e p . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equn_HTML.gif

That's meaning Φ' is coercive on X.

By a standard argument, we know that Φ' is hemicontinuous. Therefore, the conclusion follows immediately by applying Theorem 26.A [31].

To obtain our main result, we assume the following conditions on F(x,s,t):

(A1) There exist d(x) L1(Ω) and 0 < ς < p-, 0 < τ < q- such that
F ( x , s , t ) d ( x ) 1 + s ζ + t τ https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equo_HTML.gif

for a.e.x Ω and (s,t) R × R;

(A2) F(x,0,0) = 0 for a.e.x Ω;

(A3) There exist s1,t1 R with |s1|, |t1| ≥ 1 such that
meas ( Ω ) sup x , s , t Ω × [ 0 , c k p ] × [ 0 , c k q ] F ( x , s , t ) e p 1 p + + e q 1 q + Ω F ( x , s 1 , s 1 ) d x e p 1 p - s 1 p + + e q 1 q - t 1 q + , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ9_HTML.gif
(9)
where c is given in (5) and
k p = max e p 1 + p + e q 1 q + 1 p + , e p 1 + p + e q 1 q + 1 p - , k q = max q + e p 1 p + + e q 1 1 q + , q + e p 1 p + + e q 1 1 q - . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equp_HTML.gif
(A3)' F(x,s,t) > 0 for any x Ω and |s| or |t| large enough, and there exist M, N > 0 such that
F ( x , s , t ) 0 , x Ω , s M , t N ; https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equq_HTML.gif

Then we have the following main theorem.

Theorem 2. Assume (A1),(A2),(A3)(or (A3)'),(G) and (E) hold. Then there exist an open interval Λ [0, ∞) and a positive real number ρ with the following property: for each λ Λ, there exists σ > 0 such that for each μ [0, σ], problem (1) has at least three weak solutions whose norms are less than ρ.

Proof. By the definitions of Φ, Ψ, J, we know that Ψ' is compact, Φ is weakly lower semi-continuous and bounded on each bounded subset of X. From lemma 1 we can see that (Φ')-1 is well defined, from condition (G), J is well defined and continuously Gâteaux differentiable on X, with compact derivative. Then we can use Theorem 1 to obtain the result. Now we show that the hypotheses of Theorem 1 are fulfilled.

Thanks to (A1), for each λ ≥ 0, one has that
lim z Φ ( z ) + λ Ψ ( z ) = + , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equr_HTML.gif

and so the assumption (i) of Theorem 1 holds.

Now we consider in two cases:

Case (i): (A3) holds, i.e., there exist 1 ≤ |s1|, |t1| such that (9) hold.

Now we set z0 = (0,0), z1 = (s1, s1) and denote r = e p 1 p + + e q 1 q + > 0 https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq15_HTML.gif, then it is easy to see that
Φ ( z 1 ) > r > 0 = Φ ( z 0 ) . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equs_HTML.gif

Thus, (ii) of Theorem 1 is satisfied.

At last, by (A2) we know Ψ(z0) = 0, then
Φ ( z 1 ) - r Ψ ( z 0 ) + ( r - Φ ( z 0 ) ) Ψ ( z 1 ) Φ ( z 1 ) - Φ ( z 0 ) = r Ψ ( z 1 ) Φ ( z 1 ) - r Ω F ( x , s 1 , s 1 ) d x s 1 p + p - e p 1 + t 1 q + q - e q 1 . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ10_HTML.gif
(10)
On the other way, when Φ(z) ≤ r, we have
min { u e p p + , u e p p } r p + , min { v e q p + , v e q p } r q + . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equt_HTML.gif
We deduce that
u e p max ( r p + ) 1 p + , ( r p + ) 1 p - https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equu_HTML.gif
and
v e q max ( r q + ) 1 q + , ( r q + ) 1 q - https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equv_HTML.gif
For r = e p 1 p + + e q 1 q + https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq16_HTML.gif, then we have
u e p k p , v e q k q . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equw_HTML.gif
By (5), we obtain
u c k p , v c k q . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equx_HTML.gif
Thus, from (7), we have
- inf z Φ - 1 ( - , r ) Ψ ( z ) = sup z Φ - 1 ( - , r ) - Ψ ( z ) Ω sup u , v [ 0 , c k p ] × [ 0 , c k q ] F ( x , u , v ) d x meas ( Ω ) sup x , u , v Ω × [ 0 , c k p ] × [ 0 , c k q ] F ( x , u , v ) https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ11_HTML.gif
(11)

From (9)-(11) and the definition of r, we can see (iii) of Theorem 1 is hold.

Case (ii): (A3)' holds. Then there exist |s2|,|t2| > 1 such that F(x,s2,t2) > 0 for any x Ω and s 2 p - e p 1 1 , t 2 q - e q 1 1 https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq17_HTML.gif. Set a = min{c,M}, b = min{c, N} then we have
Ω sup s , t [ 0 , a ] × [ 0 , b ] F ( x , s , t ) d x 0 < Ω F ( x , s 2 , t 2 ) d x . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ12_HTML.gif
(12)
We denote z2 = (s2,t2) and r = min 1 p + a c p + , 1 q + b c q + https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq18_HTML.gif. Then it is easy to see that
Φ ( z 2 ) > r > Φ ( z 0 ) . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equy_HTML.gif

So, (ii) of Theorem 1 is satisfied.

When Φ(z) ≤ r, similar to the above arguments, we obtain that
u a , v b . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ13_HTML.gif
(13)
At last, we see that
Φ ( z 2 ) - r Ψ ( z 0 ) + ( r - Φ ( z 0 ) ) Ψ ( z 2 ) Φ ( z 2 ) - Φ ( z 0 ) = r Ψ ( z 2 ) Φ ( z 2 ) - r Ω F ( x , s 2 , t 2 ) d x s 2 p + p - e p 1 + t 2 q + q - e q 1 < 0 . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ14_HTML.gif
(14)
From (7) and (12), we have
- inf z Φ - 1 ( - , r ) Ψ ( z ) = sup z Φ - 1 ( - , r ) - Ψ ( z ) Ω sup u , v [ 0 , a ] × [ 0 , b ] F ( x , u , v ) d x 0 . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ15_HTML.gif
(15)

From (14) and (15), we can see (iii) of Theorem 1 is still hold.

Then all the hypotheses of Theorem 1 are fulfilled. By Theorem 1, we know that there exist an open interval Λ [0, ∞) and a positive constant ρ such that for any λ Λ, there exists σ > 0 and for each μ [0,σ], problem (1) has at least three weak solutions whose norms are less than ρ.

By Theorem 2, we have the following result.

Corollary 1. Let f, g : Ω × RR be Carathéodory functions, sup|ζ|≤s|g(·, ζ)| L1(Ω) for all s > 0, and define F ( x , t ) = 0 t f ( x , y ) d y https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq19_HTML.gif for any (x,t) Ω × R, e(x) L(Ω) and ess infΩe(x) > 0. Assume the following conditions hold.

(B1) There exist d(x) L1(Ω) and 0 < ς < p- such that
F ( x , t ) d ( x ) 1 + t ς https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equz_HTML.gif

for a.e.x Ω and t R;

(B2) There exists t3 R with |t3| ≥ 1 such that
m e a s ( Ω ) sup x , s Ω × [ 0 , c k ] F ( x , s ) p - p + Ω F ( x , t 3 ) d x t 3 p + , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ16_HTML.gif
(16)
where c is given in (5) and
k = max e 1 1 p + , e 1 1 p - ; https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equaa_HTML.gif

or

(B2)' F(x,t) > 0 for any x Ω and |t| large enough, and there exist M > 0 such that
F ( x , t ) 0 , x Ω , t M . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equab_HTML.gif
Then there exist an open interval Λ [0, ∞) and a positive constant ρ such that for any λ Λ, there exists σ > 0 and for each μ [0, σ], the problem
- Δ p ( x ) u + e ( x ) u p ( x ) - 2 u = λ f ( x , u ) + μ g ( x , u ) , x Ω , u = 0 x Ω , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ17_HTML.gif
(17)

has at least three weak solutions whose norms are less than ρ.

Remark 1. if p(x) = p in Ω, μ = 0, problem (17) was considered in [21]. If we take f(x,t) = |t|γ(x)-2t - t with γ ( x ) C 0 ( Ω ̄ ) https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq20_HTML.gif satisfies 2 < γ-γ+ < p-, μ = 0, Corollary 1 becomes a version of Theorem 2 in [23]. Hence our Corollary 1 unifies and generalizes Theorem 2 in [21] and Theorem 2 in [23] and our Theorem 2 generalizes the main results of [2125] to the system (1).

At last, we give two examples.

Example 1. Let Ω = B(0,1) be the unit ball of R N with N ≥ 2, set p(x) = N + e|x|,q(x) = N + 1 + ln(1 + x2), e p (x) = (1 + x2) = e q (x), G(x,u,v) = x2(u2 + v2) and
F ( x , u , v ) = e x 2 ( e u + u v - 1 ) , x Ω , u M , v R , e x 2 u e M + u v + 1 2 u 2 - M u - ( M - 1 ) e M + 1 2 M 2 , x Ω , u M , v R , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ18_HTML.gif
(18)
where M is a positive constant, i.e., we consider the following problem
- Δ p ( x ) u + ( 1 + x 2 ) u p ( x ) - 2 u = λ f ( x , u , v ) + μ 2 x 2 u , x Ω , - Δ q ( x ) v + ( 1 + x 2 ) v q ( x ) - 2 v = λ u + μ 2 x 2 v , x Ω , u v = v v = 0 x Ω . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ19_HTML.gif
(19)
where
f ( x , u , v ) = F u ( x , u , v ) = e x 2 ( e u + v ) , x Ω , u M , v R , e x 2 ( e M + v + u - M ) , x Ω , u M , v R , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ20_HTML.gif
(20)
We can see that p + = N + e , p - = N + 1 , q + = N + 1 + ln 2 , q - = N + 1 , e 1 = 4 3 https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq21_HTML.gif, and it is easy to see that for any t1 > 1, there exists s1 > 1 such that
e s 1 + s 1 t 1 - 1 s 1 p + p - + t 1 q + q - e e c k p + c 2 k p k q - 1 1 p + + 1 q + , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ21_HTML.gif
(21)

were k p = 4 3 + 4 ( N + 1 + ln + 2 ) 3 ( N + e ) 1 N + 1 , k q = 4 3 + 4 ( N + e ) 3 ( N + 1 + ln 2 ) 1 N + 1 https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_IEq22_HTML.gif are positive constants and c is given by (5). Then when Ms1, F(x,u,v) defined in (18) satisfies (A1)-(A3) of Theorem 2, and G(x,u,v),e(x) satisfy

(G) and (E) respectively, by Theorem 2, there exist an open interval Λ [0, ∞) and a positive constant ρ such that for any λ Λ, there exists σ > 0 and for each μ [0,σ], system (19) has at least three weak solutions whose norms are less than ρ.

Example 2. Assume Ω,p(x),q(x),e p (x),e q (x),G(x,u,v) are the same as in example 1, and suppose N ≥ 8. Let
F ( x , u , v ) = ( 1 + 2 x 2 ) u 4 v 2 + v 4 u 2 - 2 u 2 v 2 , x Ω , u , v R . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ22_HTML.gif
(22)
Obviously, F(x,u,v) satisfies (A1) and (A2). By simple computation, we can see that
F ( x , u , v ) > 0 , when u > 2 or v > 2 https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equac_HTML.gif
and
F ( x , u , v ) < 0 , when u < 1 and v < 1 , https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equad_HTML.gif

i.e., (A3)' hold for F(x,u,v) defined in (22).

Thus, there exist an open interval Λ [0, ∞) and a positive constant ρ such that for any λ Λ, there exists σ > 0 and for each μ [0, σ], the system
- Δ p ( x ) u + ( 1 + x 2 ) u p ( x ) - 2 u = λ 4 u 3 v 2 + 2 v 4 u - 4 u v 2 + μ 2 x 2 u , x Ω , - Δ p ( x ) v + ( 1 + x 2 ) v q ( x ) - 2 v = λ 4 u 3 v 2 + 2 u 4 v - 4 v u 2 + μ 2 x 2 v , x Ω , u v = v v = 0 x Ω . https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1687-2770-2012-30/MediaObjects/13661_2011_Article_129_Equ23_HTML.gif
(23)

has at least three weak solutions whose norms are less than ρ.

Remark 2. We remark that the methods used in this paper are also applicable for the cases of the other boundary value conditions, for example, Dirichlet boundary value conditions.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11171092). Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions of China (Grant No. 08KJB110005).

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Institute of Mathematics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing Normal University
(2)
School of Mathematical Sciences, Huaiyin Normal University
(3)
College of Zhongbei, Nanjing Normal University

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© Yin and Yang; licensee Springer. 2012

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