- Research Article
- Open Access
- Published:

# Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear Three-Point Integral Boundary Value Problem

*Boundary Value Problems*
**volume 2010**, Article number: 519210 (2010)

## Abstract

We study the existence of positive solutions to the three-point integral boundary value problem , , , , where and . We show the existence of at least one positive solution if *f* is either superlinear or sublinear by applying the fixed point theorem in cones.

## 1. Introduction

The study of the existence of solutions of multipoint boundary value problems for linear second-order ordinary differential equations was initiated by Il'in and Moiseev [1]. Then Gupta [2] studied three-point boundary value problems for nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations. Since then, nonlinear second-order three-point boundary value problems have also been studied by several authors. We refer the reader to [3–19] and the references therein. However, all these papers are concerned with problems with three-point boundary condition restrictions on the slope of the solutions and the solutions themselves, for example,

and so forth.

In this paper, we consider the existence of positive solutions to the equation

with the three-point integral boundary condition

where . We note that the new three-point boundary conditions are related to the area under the curve of solutions from to .

The aim of this paper is to give some results for existence of positive solutions to (1.2)-(1.3), assuming that and is either superlinear or sublinear. Set

Then and correspond to the superlinear case, and and correspond to the sublinear case. By the positive solution of (1.2)-(1.3) we mean that a function is positive on and satisfies the problem (1.2)-(1.3).

Throughout this paper, we suppose the following conditions hold:

;

and there exists such that .

The proof of the main theorem is based upon an application of the following Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem in a cone.

Theorem 1.1 (see [20]).

Let be a Banach space, and let be a cone. Assume , are open subsets of with , and let

be a completely continuous operator such that

(i), , and , or

(ii),, and ,.

Then has a fixed point in .

## 2. Preliminaries

We now state and prove several lemmas before stating our main results.

Lemma 2.1.

Let . Then for , the problem

has a unique solution

Proof.

From (2.1), we have

For , integration from to , gives

For , integration from to yields that

that is,

So,

Integrating (2.7) from to , where , we have

From (2.2), we obtain that

Thus,

Therefore, (2.1)-(2.2) has a unique solution

Lemma 2.2.

Let . If and on , then the unique solution of (2.1)-(2.2) satisfies for .

Proof.

If , then, by the concavity of and the fact that , we have for .

Moreover, we know that the graph of is concave down on , we get

where is the area of triangle under the curve from to for .

Assume that . From (2.2), we have

By concavity of and , it implies that .

Hence,

which contradicts the concavity of .

Lemma 2.3.

Let . If and for , then (2.1)-(2.2) has no positive solution.

Proof.

Assume (2.1)-(2.2) has a positive solution .

If , then , it implies that and

which contradicts the concavity of .

If , then , this is for all . If there exists such that , then , which contradicts the concavity of . Therefore, no positive solutions exist.

In the rest of the paper, we assume that . Moreover, we will work in the Banach space , and only the sup norm is used.

Lemma 2.4.

Let . If and , then the unique solution of the problem (2.1)-(2.2) satisfies

where

Proof.

Set . We divide the proof into three cases.

Case 1.

If and , then the concavity of implies that

Thus,

Case 2.

If and , then (2.2), (2.13), and the concavity of implies

Therefore,

Case 3.

If , then . Using the concavity of and (2.2), (2.13), we have

This implies that

This completes the proof.

## 3. Main Results

Now we are in the position to establish the main result.

Theorem 3.1.

Assume and hold. Then the problem (1.2)-(1.3) has at least one positive solution in the case

(i) and (superlinear), or

(ii) and (sublinear).

Proof.

It is known that . From Lemma 2.1, is a solution to the boundary value problem (1.2)-(1.3) if and only if is a fixed point of operator , where is defined by

Denote that

where is defined in (2.18).

It is obvious that is a cone in . Moreover, by Lemmas 2.2 and 2.4, . It is also easy to check that is completely continuous.

Superlinear Case ( and )

Since , we may choose so that , for , where satisfies

Thus, if we let

then, for , we get

Thus , .

Further, since , there exists such that , for , where is chosen so that

Let and . Then implies that

and so

Hence, , . By the first past of Theorem 1.1, has a fixed point in such that .

Sublinear Case ( and )

Since , choose such that for , where satisfies

Let

then for , we get

Thus, , . Now, since , there exists so that for , where satisfies

Choose . Let

then implies that

Therefore,

Thus , . By the second part of Theorem 1.1, has a fixed point in , such that . This completes the sublinear part of the theorem. Therefore, the problem (1.2)-(1.3) has at least one positive solution.

## References

- 1.
Il'in VA, Moiseev EI:

**Nonlocal boundary-value problem of the first kind for a Sturm-Liouville operator in its differential and finite difference aspects.***Differential Equations*1987,**23:**803-810. - 2.
Gupta CP:

**Solvability of a three-point nonlinear boundary value problem for a second order ordinary differential equations.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*1992,**168**(2):540-551. 10.1016/0022-247X(92)90179-H - 3.
Chengbo Z:

**Positive solutions for semi-positone three-point boundary value problems.***Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*2009,**228**(1):279-286. 10.1016/j.cam.2008.09.019 - 4.
Guo Y, Ge W:

**Positive solutions for three-point boundary value problems with dependence on the first order derivative.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2004,**290**(1):291-301. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2003.09.061 - 5.
Han X:

**Positive solutions for a three-point boundary value problem.***Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications*2007,**66**(3):679-688. 10.1016/j.na.2005.12.009 - 6.
Li J, Shen J:

**Multiple positive solutions for a second-order three-point boundary value problem.***Applied Mathematics and Computation*2006,**182**(1):258-268. 10.1016/j.amc.2006.01.095 - 7.
Liang S, Mu L:

**Multiplicity of positive solutions for singular three-point boundary value problems at resonance.***Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications*2009,**71**(7-8):2497-2505. 10.1016/j.na.2009.01.085 - 8.
Liang R, Peng J, Shen J:

**Positive solutions to a generalized second order three-point boundary value problem.***Applied Mathematics and Computation*2008,**196**(2):931-940. 10.1016/j.amc.2007.07.025 - 9.
Liu B:

**Positive solutions of a nonlinear three-point boundary value problem.***Applied Mathematics and Computation*2002,**132**(1):11-28. 10.1016/S0096-3003(02)00341-7 - 10.
Liu B:

**Positive solutions of a nonlinear three-point boundary value problem.***Computers & Mathematics with Applications. An International Journal*2002,**44**(1-2):201-211. 10.1016/S0898-1221(02)00141-4 - 11.
Liu B, Liu L, Wu Y:

**Positive solutions for singular second order three-point boundary value problems.***Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications.*2007,**66**(12):2756-2766. 10.1016/j.na.2006.04.005 - 12.
Luo H, Ma Q:

**Positive solutions to a generalized second-order three-point boundary-value problem on time scales.***Electronic Journal of Differential Equations*2005,**17:**1-14. - 13.
Ma R:

**Multiplicity of positive solutions for second-order three-point boundary value problems.***Computers & Mathematics with Applications*2000,**40**(2-3):193-204. 10.1016/S0898-1221(00)00153-X - 14.
Ma R:

**Positive solutions for second-order three-point boundary value problems.***Applied Mathematics Letters*2001,**14**(1):1-5. 10.1016/S0893-9659(00)00102-6 - 15.
Ma R:

**Positive solutions of a nonlinear three-point boundary-value problem.***Electronic Journal of Differential Equations*1999,**34:**1-8. - 16.
Pang H, Feng M, Ge W:

**Existence and monotone iteration of positive solutions for a three-point boundary value problem.***Applied Mathematics Letters*2008,**21**(7):656-661. 10.1016/j.aml.2007.07.019 - 17.
Sun H-R, Li W-T:

**Positive solutions for nonlinear three-point boundary value problems on time scales.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2004,**299**(2):508-524. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2004.03.079 - 18.
Sun Y, Liu L, Zhang J, Agarwal RP:

**Positive solutions of singular three-point boundary value problems for second-order differential equations.***Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*2009,**230**(2):738-750. 10.1016/j.cam.2009.01.003 - 19.
Xu X:

**Multiplicity results for positive solutions of some semi-positone three-point boundary value problems.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2004,**291**(2):673-689. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2003.11.037 - 20.
Krasnoselskii MA:

*Positive Solutions of Operator Equations*. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands; 1964.

## Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the referee for their comments and suggestions on the paper. Especially, the authors would like to thank Dr. Elvin James Moore for valuable advice. This research is supported by the Centre of Excellence in Mathematics, Thailand.

## Author information

## Rights and permissions

**Open Access** This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## About this article

### Cite this article

Tariboon, J., Sitthiwirattham, T. Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear Three-Point Integral Boundary Value Problem.
*Bound Value Probl* **2010, **519210 (2010) doi:10.1155/2010/519210

Received:

Accepted:

Published:

### Keywords

- Banach Space
- Partial Differential Equation
- Unique Solution
- Ordinary Differential Equation
- Functional Equation