 Research Article
 Open Access
 Published:
Global Behaviors and Optimal Harvesting of a Class of Impulsive Periodic Logistic SingleSpecies System with Continuous Periodic Control Strategy
Boundary Value Problems volume 2008, Article number: 192353 (2009)
Abstract
Global behaviors and optimal harvesting of a class of impulsive periodic logistic singlespecies system with continuous periodic control strategy is investigated. Four new sufficient conditions that guarantee the exponential stability of the impulsive evolution operator introduced by us are given. By virtue of exponential stability of the impulsive evolution operator, we present the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotical stability of periodic solutions. Further, the existence result of periodic optimal controls for a Bolza problem is given. At last, an academic example is given for demonstration.
1. Introduction
In population dynamics, the optimal management of renewable resources has been one of the interesting research topics. The optimal exploitation of renewable resources, which has direct effect on their sustainable development, has been paid much attention [1–3]. However, it is always hoped that we can achieve sustainability at a high level of productivity and good economic profit, and this requires scientific and effective management of the resources.
Singlespecies resource management model, which is described by the impulsive periodic logistic equations on finitedimensional spaces, has been investigated extensively, no matter how the harvesting occurs, continuously [1, 4] or impulsively [5–7]. However, the associated singlespecies resource management model on infinitedimensional spaces has not been investigated extensively.
Since the end of last century, many authors including Professors Nieto and Hernández pay great attention on impulsive differential systems. We refer the readers to [8–22]. Particulary, Doctor Ahmed investigated optimal control problems [23, 24] for impulsive systems on infinitedimensional spaces. We also gave a series of results [25–34] for the firstorder (secondorder) semilinear impulsive systems, integraldifferential impulsive system, strongly nonlinear impulsive systems and their optimal control problems. Recently, we have investigated linear impulsive periodic system on infinitedimensional spaces. Some results [35–37] including the existence of periodic mild solutions and alternative theorem, criteria of Massera type, asymptotical stability and robustness against perturbation for a linear impulsive periodic system are established.
Herein, we devote to studying global behaviors and optimal harvesting of the generalized logistic singlespecies system with continuous periodic control strategy and periodic impulsive perturbations:
On infinitedimensional spaces, where denotes the population number of isolated species at time and location , is a bounded domain and , operator . The coefficients , are sufficiently smooth functions of in , where , and , . Denoting , , then = . is related to the periodic change of the resources maintaining the evolution of the population and the periodic control policy , where is a suitable admissible control set. Time sequence and as , denote mutation of the isolate species at time where .
Suppose is a Banach space and is a separable reflexive Banach space. The objective functional is given by
where is Borel measurable, is continuous, and nonnegative and denotes the periodic mild solution of system (1.1) at location and corresponding to the control . The Bolza problem () is to find such that for all
Suppose that , , and is the least positive constant such that there are s in the interval and where , . The first equation of system (1.1) describes the variation of the population number of the species in periodically continuous controlled changing environment. The second equation of system (1.1) shows that the species are isolated. The third equation of system (1.1) reflects the possibility of impulsive effects on the population.
Let satisfy some properties (such as strongly elliptic) in and set (such as . For every define , is the infinitesimal generator of a semigroup on the Banach space (such as ). Define x, and then system (1.1) can be abstracted into the following controlled system:
On the Banach space , and the associated objective functional
where denotes the periodic mild solution of system (1.3) corresponding to the control . The Bolza problem (P) is to find such that for all The investigation of the system (1.3) cannot only be used to discuss the system (1.1), but also provide a foundation for research of the optimal control problems for semilinear impulsive periodic systems. The aim of this paper is to give some new sufficient conditions which will guarantee the existence, uniqueness, and global asymptotical stability of periodic mild solutions for system (1.3) and study the optimal control problems arising in the system (1.3).
The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the properties of the impulsive evolution operator are collected. Four new sufficient conditions that guarantee the exponential stability of the are given. In Section 3, the existence, uniqueness, and global asymptotical stability of periodic mild solution for system (1.3) is obtained. In Section 4, the existence result of periodic optimal controls for the Bolza problem (P) is presented. At last, an academic example is given to demonstrate our result.
2. Impulsive Periodic Evolution Operator and It's Stability
Let be a Banach space, denotes the space of linear operators on ; denotes the space of bounded linear operators on . is the Banach space with the usual supremum norm. Denote and define is continuous at , is continuous from left and has righthand limits at and .
Set
It can be seen that endowed with the norm , is a Banach space.
In order to investigate periodic solutions, we introduce the following two spaces:
Set
It can be seen that endowed with the norm , is a Banach space.
We introduce assumption [H1].
[H1.1]: is the infinitesimal generator of a semigroup on with domain .
[H1.2]:There exists such that where .
[H1.3]:For each , , .
Under the assumption [H1], consider
and the associated Cauchy problem
For every , is an invariant subspace of , using ([38, Theorem 5.2.2, page 144]), step by step, one can verify that the Cauchy problem (2.5) has a unique classical solution represented by , where given by
The operator is called impulsive evolution operator associated with and .
The following lemma on the properties of the impulsive evolution operator associated with and is widely used in this paper.
Lemma 2.1.
Let assumption [H1]hold. The impulsive evolution operator has the following properties.
(1)For , , there exists a such that
(2)For , , .
(3)For , , .
(4)For , , .
(5)For , there exits , such that
Proof.

(1)
By assumption [H1.1], there exists a constant such that . Using assumption [H1.3], it is obvious that , for . (2) By the definition of semigroup and the construction of , one can verify the result immediately. (3) By assumptions [H1.2], [H1.3], and elementary computation, it is easy to obtain the result. (4) For , , by virtue of (3) again and again, we arrive at
(2.8)

(5)
Without loss of generality, for ,
(2.9)
This completes the proof.
In order to study the asymptotical properties of periodic solutions, it is necessary to discuss the exponential stability of the impulsive evolution operator . We first give the definition of exponential stable for .
Definition 2.2.
, is called exponentially stable if there exist and such that
Assumption [H2]: is exponentially stable, that is, there exist and such that
An important criteria for exponential stability of a semigroup is collected here.
Lemma 2.3 (see [38, Lemma 7.2.1]).
Let be a semigroup on , and let be its infinitesimal generator. Then the following assertions are equivalent:
(1) is exponentially stable.
(2)For every there exits a positive constants such that
Next, four sufficient conditions that guarantee the exponential stability of impulsive evolution operator are given.
Lemma 2.4.
Assumptions [H1] and [H2]hold. There exists such that
Then, is exponentially stable.
Proof.
Without loss of generality, for , we have
Suppose and let Then,
Let and , then we obtain
Lemma 2.5.
Assume that assumption [H1]holds. Suppose
If there exists such that
for where
Then, is exponentially stable.
Proof.
It comes from (2.17) that
Further,
where is denoted the number of impulsive points in .
For , by (2.16), we obtain the following two inequalities:
This implies
that is,
Then,
Thus, we obtain
By (5) of Lemma 2.1, let , ,
Lemma 2.6.
Assume that assumption [H1]holds. The limit
Suppose there exists such that
Then, is exponentially stable.
Proof.
Let with . It comes from
that there exits a enough small such that
that is,
From (2.27), we know that
Then, we have
Hence,
Here, we only need to choose small enough such that , by (5) of Lemma 2.1 again, let , , we have
Lemma 2.7.
Assume that assumption [H1]holds. For some , ,
Imply the exponential stability of.
Proof.
It comes from the continuity of , the inequality
and the boundedness of , are convergent, that for every and fixed . This shows that is bounded for each and fixed and hence, by virtue of uniform boundedness principle, there exists a constant such that for all . Let denote the operator given by , and is fixed. Clearly, is defined every where on and by assumption it maps and it is a closed operator. Hence, by closed graph theorem, it is a bounded linear operator from to . Thus, there exits a constant such that for all and , is fixed.
Let , and and define as
Then,
and hence,
Thus, for ,
where . Fix . Then, for any we can write for some and and we have
where and . Since , this shows that our result.
3. Periodic Solutions and Global Asymptotical Stability
Consider the following controlled system:
and the associated Cauchy problem
In addition to assumption [H1], we make the following assumptions:
[H3]: is measurable and for .
[H4]:For each , there exists and , .
[H5]: has bounded, closed, and convex values and is graph measurable, and are bounded, where is a separable reflexive Banach space.
[H6]:Operator and , for . Obviously, .
Denote the set of admissible controls
Obviously, and , is bounded, convex, and closed.
We introduce mild solution of Cauchy problem (3.2) and periodic mild solution of system (3.1).
Definition 3.1.
A function , for finite interval , is said to be a mild solution of the Cauchy problem (3.2) corresponding to the initial value and if is given by
A function is said to be a periodic mild solution of system (3.1) if it is a mild solution of Cauchy problem (3.2) corresponding to some and for .
Theorem 3.2 .A.
Assumptions [H1], [H3], [H4], [H5], and [H6]hold. Suppose is exponentially stable, for every , system (3.1) has a unique periodic mild solution:
where ,
Further,
is a bounded linear operator and
where and .
Further, for arbitrary, the mild solution of the Cauchy problem (3.2) corresponding to the initial value and control , satisfies the following inequality:
where is the periodic mild solution of system (3.1), is not dependent on , , , and . That is, can be approximated to the periodic mild solution according to exponential decreasing speed.
Proof.
Consider the operator . By (4) of Lemma 2.1 and the stability of , we have
Thus, . Obviously, the series is convergent, thus operator . It comes from that It is well known that system (3.1) has a periodic mild solution if and only if . Since is invertible, we can uniquely solve
Let , where
Note that
it is not difficult to verify that the mild solution of the Cauchy problem (3.2) corresponding to initial value given by
is just the unique periodic of system (3.1).
It is obvious that is linear. Next, verify the estimation (3.8). In fact, for ,
On the other hand,
Let , next the estimation (3.8) is verified.
System (3.1) has a unique periodic mild solution given by (3.5) and (3.6). The mild solution of the Cauchy problem (3.2) corresponding to initial value and control can be given by (3.4). Then,
Let , one can obtain (3.9) immediately.
Definition 3.3.
The periodic mild solution of the system (3.1) is said to be globally asymptotically stable in the sense that
where is any mild solutions of the Cauchy problem (3.2) corresponding to initial value and control .
By Theorem 3.2 and the stability of the impulsive evolution operator in Section 2, one can obtain the following results.
Corollary 3.A.
Under the assumptions of Theorem 3.2 , the system ( 3.1 ) has a uniqueperiodic mild solution which is globally asymptotically stable.
4. Existence of Periodic Optimal Harvesting Policy
In this section, we discuss existence of periodic optimal harvesting policy, that is, periodic optimal controls for optimal control problems arising in systems governed by linear impulsive periodic system on Banach space.
By the periodic mild solution expression of system (3.1) given in Theorem 3.2, one can obtain the result.
Theorem 4.A.
Under the assumptions of Theorem 3.2 , theperiodic mild solution of system (3.1) continuously depends on the control on , that is, let be periodic mild solution of system (3.1) corresponding to . There exists constant such that
Proof.
Since and are the periodic mild solution corresponding to and , respectively, then we have
where
Further,
where . This completes the proof.
Lemma 4.A.
Suppose is a strong continuous operator. The operator , given by
is strongly continuous.
Proof.
Without loss of generality, for ,
By virtue of strong continuity of , boundedness of , , is strongly continuous.
Let denote the periodic mild solution of system (3.1) corresponding to the control , we consider the Bolza problem (P).
Find such that for all , where
We introduce the following assumption on and .
Assumption [H7].
[H7.1]The functional is Borel measurable.
[H7.2] is sequentially lower semicontinuous on for almost all .
[H7.3] is convex on for each and almost all .
[H7.4]There exist constants , , is nonnegative and such that
[H7.5]The functional is continuous and nonnegative.
Now we can give the following results on existence of periodic optimal controls for Bolza problem (P).
Theorem 4.B.
Suppose C is a strong continuous operator and assumption [H7]holds. Under the assumptions of Theorem 3.2, the problem (P) has a unique solution.
Proof.
If there is nothing to prove.
We assume that By assumption [H7], we have
where is a constant. Hence .
By the definition of infimum there exists a sequence , such that
Since is bounded in , there exists a subsequence, relabeled as , and such that weakly convergence in and Because of is the closed and convex set, thanks to the Mazur lemma, . Suppose and are the periodic mild solution of system (3.1) corresponding to () and , respectively, then and can be given by
where
Define
then by Lemma 4.2, we have
as weakly convergence in .
Next, we show that
In fact, for , we have
By elementary computation, we arrive at
Consider the time interval , similarly we obtain
In general, given any , and the , , prior to the jump at time , we immediately follow the jump as
the associated interval , we also similarly obtain
Step by step, we repeat the procedures till the time interval is exhausted. Let , , , , , , thus we obtain
that is,
with strongly convergence as .
Since , using the assumption [H7]and Balder's theorem, we can obtain
This shows that attains its minimum at . This completes the proof.
5. Example
Last, an academic example is given to illustrate our theory.
Let and consider the following population evolution equation with impulses:
where denotes time, denotes age, is called age density function, and are positive constants, is a bounded measurable function, that is, . denotes the agespecific death rate, denotes the age density of migrants, and denotes the control. The admissible control set .
A linear operator defined on by
where the domain of is given by
By the fact that the operator is an infinitesimal generator of a semigroup (see [39, Example 2.21]) and [38, Theorem 4.2.1], then is an infinitesimal generator of a semigroup since the operator is bounded.
Now let us consider the following operators family:
It is not difficult to verify that defines a semigroup and is just the infinitesimal generator of the semigroup . Since , then there exits a constant such that a.e. . For an arbitrary function , by using the expression (5.4) of the semigroup , the following inequality holds:
Hence, Lemma 2.3 leads to the exponential stability of . That is, there exist and such that
Let
Define , , , , . Thus system (5.1) can be rewritten as
with the cost function
By Lemma 2.4, for , is exponentially stable. Now, all the assumptions are met in Theorems 3.2 and 4.3, our results can be used to system (5.1). Thus, system (5.1) has a unique periodic mild solution which is globally asymptotically stable and there exists a periodic control such that for all
The results show that the optimal population level is truly the periodic solution of the considered system, and hence, it is globally asymptotically stable. Meanwhile, it implies that we can achieve sustainability at a high level of productivity and good economic profit by virtue of scientific, effective, and continuous management of the resources.
References
 1.
Clark CW: Mathematical Bioeconomics: The Optimal Management of Renewable Resources, Pure and Applied Mathematics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 1976:xi+352.
 2.
Song X, Chen L: Optimal harvesting and stability for a twospecies competitive system with stage structure. Mathematical Biosciences 2001,170(2):173186. 10.1016/S00255564(00)000687
 3.
Marzollo R (Ed): Periodic Optimization. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 1972.
 4.
Fan M, Wang K: Optimal harvesting policy for single population with periodic coefficients. Mathematical Biosciences 1998,152(2):165177. 10.1016/S00255564(98)10024X
 5.
Bainov DD, Simeonov PS: Impulsive Differential Equations: Periodic Solutions and Applications, Pitman Monographs and Surveys in Pure and Applied Mathematics. Volume 66. Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, UK; 1993:x+228.
 6.
Xiao YN, Cheng DZ, Qin HS: Optimal impulsive control in periodic ecosystem. Systems & Control Letters 2006,55(7):558565. 10.1016/j.sysconle.2005.12.003
 7.
Lakshmikantham V, Bainov DD, Simeonov PS: Theory of Impulsive Differential Equations, Series in Modern Applied Mathematics. Volume 6. World Scientific, Teaneck, NJ, USA; 1989:xii+273.
 8.
Nieto JJ: An abstract monotone iterative technique. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 1997,28(12):19231933. 10.1016/S0362546X(97)897106
 9.
Yan J, Zhao A, Nieto JJ: Existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solution of periodic singlespecies impulsive LotkaVolterra systems. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 2004,40(56):509518. 10.1016/j.mcm.2003.12.011
 10.
Jiao JJ, Chen LS, Nieto JJ, Angela T: Permanence and global attractivity of stagestructured predatorprey model with continuous harvesting on predator and impulsive stocking on prey. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 2008,29(5):653663. 10.1007/s104830080509x
 11.
Zeng G, Wang F, Nieto JJ: Complexity of a delayed predatorprey model with impulsive harvest and Holling type II functional response. Advances in Complex Systems 2008,11(1):7797. 10.1142/S0219525908001519
 12.
Wang W, Shen J, Nieto JJ: Permanence and periodic solution of predatorprey system with Holling type functional response and impulses. Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society 2007, 2007:15.
 13.
Zhang H, Chen L, Nieto JJ: A delayed epidemic model with stagestructure and pulses for pest management strategy. Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications 2008,9(4):17141726. 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2007.05.004
 14.
Ahmad B, Nieto JJ: Existence and approximation of solutions for a class of nonlinear impulsive functional differential equations with antiperiodic boundary conditions. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2008,69(10):32913298. 10.1016/j.na.2007.09.018
 15.
Jiang D, Yang Y, Chu J, O'Regan D: The monotone method for Neumann functional differential equations with upper and lower solutions in the reverse order. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2007,67(10):28152828. 10.1016/j.na.2006.09.042
 16.
Li Y: Global exponential stability of BAM neural networks with delays and impulses. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 2005,24(1):279285.
 17.
De la Sen M: Stability of impulsive timevarying systems and compactness of the operators mapping the input space into the state and output spaces. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2006,321(2):621650. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.08.038
 18.
Yu L, Zhang J, Liao Y, Ding J: Parameter estimation error bounds for Hammerstein nonlinear finite impulsive response models. Applied Mathematics and Computation 2008,202(2):472480. 10.1016/j.amc.2008.01.002
 19.
Jankowski T: Positive solutions to second order fourpoint boundary value problems for impulsive differential equations. Applied Mathematics and Computation 2008,202(2):550561. 10.1016/j.amc.2008.02.040
 20.
Hernández EM, Pierri M, Goncalves G: Existence results for an impulsive abstract partial differential equation with statedependent delay. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 2006,52(34):411420. 10.1016/j.camwa.2006.03.022
 21.
Hernández EM, Rabello M, Henríquez HR: Existence of solutions for impulsive partial neutral functional differential equations. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2007,331(2):11351158. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2006.09.043
 22.
Hernández EM, Sakthivel R, Aki ST: Existence results for impulsive evolution differential equations with statedependent delay. Electronic Journal of Differential Equations 2008,2008(28):111.
 23.
Ahmed NU: Some remarks on the dynamics of impulsive systems in Banach spaces. Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems. Series A 2001,8(2):261274.
 24.
Ahmed NU, Teo KL, Hou SH: Nonlinear impulsive systems on infinite dimensional spaces. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2003,54(5):907925. 10.1016/S0362546X(03)001172
 25.
Xiang X, Ahmed NU: Existence of periodic solutions of semilinear evolution equations with time lags. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 1992,18(11):10631070. 10.1016/0362546X(92)90195K
 26.
Xiang X: Optimal control for a class of strongly nonlinear evolution equations with constraints. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2001,47(1):5766. 10.1016/S0362546X(01)001560
 27.
Sattayatham P, Tangmanee S, Wei W: On periodic solutions of nonlinear evolution equations in Banach spaces. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2002,276(1):98108. 10.1016/S0022247X(02)003785
 28.
Xiang X, Wei W, Jiang Y: Strongly nonlinear impulsive system and necessary conditions of optimality. Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete & Impulsive Systems. Series A 2005,12(6):811824.
 29.
Wei W, Xiang X: Necessary conditions of optimal control for a class of strongly nonlinear impulsive equations in Banach spaces. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2005,63(5–7):5363.
 30.
Wei W, Xiang X, Peng Y: Nonlinear impulsive integrodifferential equations of mixed type and optimal controls. Optimization 2006,55(12):141156. 10.1080/02331930500530401
 31.
Xiang X, Wei W: Mild solution for a class of nonlinear impulsive evolution inclusions on Banach space. Southeast Asian Bulletin of Mathematics 2006,30(2):367376.
 32.
Yu X, Xiang X, Wei W: Solution bundle for a class of impulsive differential inclusions on Banach spaces. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2007,327(1):220232. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2006.03.075
 33.
Peng Y, Xiang X, Wei W: Nonlinear impulsive integrodifferential equations of mixed type with timevarying generating operators and optimal controls. Dynamic Systems and Applications 2007,16(3):481496.
 34.
Peng Y, Xiang X: Second order nonlinear impulsive timevariant systems with unbounded perturbation and optimal controls. Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization 2008,4(1):1732.
 35.
Wang J: Linear impulsive periodic system on Banach spaces. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Impulsive and Hybrid Dynamical Systems, July 2007, Nanning, China 5: 2025.
 36.
Wang J, Xiang X, Wei W: Linear impulsive periodic system with timevarying generating operators on Banach space. Advances in Difference Equations 2007, 2007:16.
 37.
Wang J, Xiang X, Wei W, Chen Q:Existence and global asymptotical stability of periodic solution for the periodic logistic system with timevarying generating operators and periodic impulsive perturbations on Banach spaces Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society 2008, 2008:16.
 38.
Ahmed NU: Semigroup Theory with Applications to Systems and Control, Pitman Research Notes in Mathematics Series. Volume 246. Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, UK; 1991:x+282.
 39.
Luo ZH, Guo BZ, Morgül O: Stability and Stabilization of Infinite Dimensional Systems with Applications, Communications and Control Engineering Series. Springer, London, UK; 1999:xiv+403.
Acknowledgments
This work is supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guizhou Province Education Department (no. 2007008). This work is also supported by the undergraduate carve out project of Department of Guiyang Science and Technology (2008, no. 152).
Author information
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Wang, J., Xiang, X. & Wei, W. Global Behaviors and Optimal Harvesting of a Class of Impulsive Periodic Logistic SingleSpecies System with Continuous Periodic Control Strategy. Bound Value Probl 2008, 192353 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1155/2008/192353
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
Keywords
 Banach Space
 Periodic Solution
 Cauchy Problem
 Exponential Stability
 Mild Solution