- Research Article
- Open Access
Global Behaviors and Optimal Harvesting of a Class of Impulsive Periodic Logistic Single-Species System with Continuous Periodic Control Strategy
© JinRongWang et al. 2008
- Received: 30 September 2008
- Accepted: 17 December 2008
- Published: 8 February 2009
Global behaviors and optimal harvesting of a class of impulsive periodic logistic single-species system with continuous periodic control strategy is investigated. Four new sufficient conditions that guarantee the exponential stability of the impulsive evolution operator introduced by us are given. By virtue of exponential stability of the impulsive evolution operator, we present the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotical stability of periodic solutions. Further, the existence result of periodic optimal controls for a Bolza problem is given. At last, an academic example is given for demonstration.
- Banach Space
- Periodic Solution
- Cauchy Problem
- Exponential Stability
- Mild Solution
In population dynamics, the optimal management of renewable resources has been one of the interesting research topics. The optimal exploitation of renewable resources, which has direct effect on their sustainable development, has been paid much attention [1–3]. However, it is always hoped that we can achieve sustainability at a high level of productivity and good economic profit, and this requires scientific and effective management of the resources.
Single-species resource management model, which is described by the impulsive periodic logistic equations on finite-dimensional spaces, has been investigated extensively, no matter how the harvesting occurs, continuously [1, 4] or impulsively [5–7]. However, the associated single-species resource management model on infinite-dimensional spaces has not been investigated extensively.
Since the end of last century, many authors including Professors Nieto and Hernández pay great attention on impulsive differential systems. We refer the readers to [8–22]. Particulary, Doctor Ahmed investigated optimal control problems [23, 24] for impulsive systems on infinite-dimensional spaces. We also gave a series of results [25–34] for the first-order (second-order) semilinear impulsive systems, integral-differential impulsive system, strongly nonlinear impulsive systems and their optimal control problems. Recently, we have investigated linear impulsive periodic system on infinite-dimensional spaces. Some results [35–37] including the existence of periodic -mild solutions and alternative theorem, criteria of Massera type, asymptotical stability and robustness against perturbation for a linear impulsive periodic system are established.
On infinite-dimensional spaces, where denotes the population number of isolated species at time and location , is a bounded domain and , operator . The coefficients , are sufficiently smooth functions of in , where , and , . Denoting , , then = . is related to the periodic change of the resources maintaining the evolution of the population and the periodic control policy , where is a suitable admissible control set. Time sequence and as , denote mutation of the isolate species at time where .
where is Borel measurable, is continuous, and nonnegative and denotes the -periodic -mild solution of system (1.1) at location and corresponding to the control . The Bolza problem ( ) is to find such that for all
Suppose that , , and is the least positive constant such that there are s in the interval and where , . The first equation of system (1.1) describes the variation of the population number of the species in periodically continuous controlled changing environment. The second equation of system (1.1) shows that the species are isolated. The third equation of system (1.1) reflects the possibility of impulsive effects on the population.
where denotes the -periodic -mild solution of system (1.3) corresponding to the control . The Bolza problem (P) is to find such that for all The investigation of the system (1.3) cannot only be used to discuss the system (1.1), but also provide a foundation for research of the optimal control problems for semilinear impulsive periodic systems. The aim of this paper is to give some new sufficient conditions which will guarantee the existence, uniqueness, and global asymptotical stability of periodic -mild solutions for system (1.3) and study the optimal control problems arising in the system (1.3).
The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the properties of the impulsive evolution operator are collected. Four new sufficient conditions that guarantee the exponential stability of the are given. In Section 3, the existence, uniqueness, and global asymptotical stability of -periodic -mild solution for system (1.3) is obtained. In Section 4, the existence result of periodic optimal controls for the Bolza problem (P) is presented. At last, an academic example is given to demonstrate our result.
Let be a Banach space, denotes the space of linear operators on ; denotes the space of bounded linear operators on . is the Banach space with the usual supremum norm. Denote and define is continuous at , is continuous from left and has right-hand limits at and .
It can be seen that endowed with the norm , is a Banach space.
It can be seen that endowed with the norm , is a Banach space.
We introduce assumption [H1].
[H1.1]: is the infinitesimal generator of a -semigroup on with domain .
[H1.2]:There exists such that where .
[H1.3]:For each , , .
The operator is called impulsive evolution operator associated with and .
The following lemma on the properties of the impulsive evolution operator associated with and is widely used in this paper.
Let assumption [H1] hold. The impulsive evolution operator has the following properties.
(1)For , , there exists a such that
(2)For , , .
(3)For , , .
(4)For , , .
- (1)By assumption [H1.1], there exists a constant such that . Using assumption [H1.3], it is obvious that , for . (2) By the definition of -semigroup and the construction of , one can verify the result immediately. (3) By assumptions [H1.2], [H1.3], and elementary computation, it is easy to obtain the result. (4) For , , by virtue of (3) again and again, we arrive at
This completes the proof.
In order to study the asymptotical properties of periodic solutions, it is necessary to discuss the exponential stability of the impulsive evolution operator . We first give the definition of exponential stable for .
An important criteria for exponential stability of a -semigroup is collected here.
Lemma 2.3 (see [38, Lemma 7.2.1]).
Let be a -semigroup on , and let be its infinitesimal generator. Then the following assertions are equivalent:
(1) is exponentially stable.
Next, four sufficient conditions that guarantee the exponential stability of impulsive evolution operator are given.
Then, is exponentially stable.
Let and , then we obtain
Then, is exponentially stable.
where is denoted the number of impulsive points in .
By (5) of Lemma 2.1, let , ,
Then, is exponentially stable.
Here, we only need to choose small enough such that , by (5) of Lemma 2.1 again, let , , we have
Imply the exponential stability of .
and the boundedness of , are convergent, that for every and fixed . This shows that is bounded for each and fixed and hence, by virtue of uniform boundedness principle, there exists a constant such that for all . Let denote the operator given by , and is fixed. Clearly, is defined every where on and by assumption it maps and it is a closed operator. Hence, by closed graph theorem, it is a bounded linear operator from to . Thus, there exits a constant such that for all and , is fixed.
where and . Since , this shows that our result.
In addition to assumption [H1], we make the following assumptions:
[H3]: is measurable and for .
[H4]:For each , there exists and , .
[H5]: has bounded, closed, and convex values and is graph measurable, and are bounded, where is a separable reflexive Banach space.
[H6]:Operator and , for . Obviously, .
Obviously, and , is bounded, convex, and closed.
We introduce -mild solution of Cauchy problem (3.2) and -periodic -mild solution of system (3.1).
A function is said to be a -periodic -mild solution of system (3.1) if it is a -mild solution of Cauchy problem (3.2) corresponding to some and for .
Theorem 3.2 .A.
where and .
where is the -periodic -mild solution of system (3.1), is not dependent on , , , and . That is, can be approximated to the -periodic -mild solution according to exponential decreasing speed.
is just the unique -periodic of system (3.1).
Let , next the estimation (3.8) is verified.
Let , one can obtain (3.9) immediately.
where is any -mild solutions of the Cauchy problem (3.2) corresponding to initial value and control .
By Theorem 3.2 and the stability of the impulsive evolution operator in Section 2, one can obtain the following results.
Under the assumptions of Theorem 3.2 , the system ( 3.1 ) has a unique -periodic -mild solution which is globally asymptotically stable.
In this section, we discuss existence of periodic optimal harvesting policy, that is, periodic optimal controls for optimal control problems arising in systems governed by linear impulsive periodic system on Banach space.
By the -periodic -mild solution expression of system (3.1) given in Theorem 3.2, one can obtain the result.
where . This completes the proof.
is strongly continuous.
By virtue of strong continuity of , boundedness of , , is strongly continuous.
Let denote the -periodic -mild solution of system (3.1) corresponding to the control , we consider the Bolza problem (P).
We introduce the following assumption on and .
[H7.1] The functional is Borel measurable.
[H7.2] is sequentially lower semicontinuous on for almost all .
[H7.3] is convex on for each and almost all .
[H7.5] The functional is continuous and nonnegative.
Now we can give the following results on existence of periodic optimal controls for Bolza problem (P).
Suppose C is a strong continuous operator and assumption [H7] holds. Under the assumptions of Theorem 3.2, the problem (P) has a unique solution.
If there is nothing to prove.
where is a constant. Hence .
By the definition of infimum there exists a sequence , such that
as weakly convergence in .
with strongly convergence as .
This shows that attains its minimum at . This completes the proof.
Last, an academic example is given to illustrate our theory.
where denotes time, denotes age, is called age density function, and are positive constants, is a bounded measurable function, that is, . denotes the age-specific death rate, denotes the age density of migrants, and denotes the control. The admissible control set .
By the fact that the operator is an infinitesimal generator of a -semigroup (see [39, Example 2.21]) and [38, Theorem 4.2.1], then is an infinitesimal generator of a -semigroup since the operator is bounded.
Hence, Lemma 2.3 leads to the exponential stability of . That is, there exist and such that
By Lemma 2.4, for , is exponentially stable. Now, all the assumptions are met in Theorems 3.2 and 4.3, our results can be used to system (5.1). Thus, system (5.1) has a unique -periodic -mild solution which is globally asymptotically stable and there exists a periodic control such that for all
The results show that the optimal population level is truly the periodic solution of the considered system, and hence, it is globally asymptotically stable. Meanwhile, it implies that we can achieve sustainability at a high level of productivity and good economic profit by virtue of scientific, effective, and continuous management of the resources.
This work is supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guizhou Province Education Department (no. 2007008). This work is also supported by the undergraduate carve out project of Department of Guiyang Science and Technology (2008, no. 15-2).
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