On the Solvability of Second-Order Impulsive Differential Equations with Antiperiodic Boundary Value Conditions
© Y. Xing and V. Romanovski. 2008
Received: 3 July 2008
Accepted: 10 November 2008
Published: 26 November 2008
We prove existence results for second-order impulsive differential equations with antiperiodic boundary value conditions in the presence of classical fixed point theorems. We also obtain the expression of Green's function of related linear operator in the space of piecewise continuous functions.
1. Introduction and Preliminaries
Many evolution processes are characterized by the fact that at certain moments of time they experience a change of state abruptly. Consequently, it is natural to assume that these perturbations act instantaneously, that is, in the form of impulses. It is known that many biological phenomena involving threshold, bursting rhythm models in medicine and biology, optimal control models in economics, pharmacokinetics, and frequency modulated systems do exhibit impulse effects. The branch of modern, applied analysis known as "impulsive" differential equations provides a natural framework to mathematically describe the aforementioned jumping processes. The reader is referred to monographs [1–4] and references therein for some nice examples and applications to the above areas.
In [4–12], the authors studied the existence of antiperiodic solutions for first-order, second-order, or high-order differential equations without impulses, and in [3, 13–16] the authors were concerned with the antiperiodic solutions of first-order impulsive differential equations. Also we should mention the work by Cabada et al. in  which is concerned with a certain th order linear differential equation with constant impulses at fixed times and nonhomogeneous periodic boundary conditions. So far, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to deal with the antiperiodic solutions to second-order differential equations with nonconstant impulses. Our method to prove the existence of antiperiodic solutions is based on the works in [13, 18, 19]. We should point out that it is Christopher C. Tisdell who started with this method.
The article is organized as follows. In Section 2, we present the expression of Green's functions of related linear operator in the space of piecewise continuous functions. Section 3 contains the main results of the paper and is devoted to the existence of solutions to (1.1). There, differential inequalities are developed and applied to prove the existence of at least one solution to (1.1). In Section 4, a couple of examples are given to illustrate how the main results work.
The following fixed point theorem is our main tool to prove the existence of at least one solution to (1.1).
Schaefer's Fixed Point Theorem (19)
2. Expression of Green's Function
In this part, we present the expression of Green's functions for second order impulsive equations with antiperiodic conditions.
Recall that a mapping between Banach spaces is compact if it is continuous and carries bounded sets into relatively compact sets.
3. Main Results
In this section, we prove the existence results for (1.1) in presence of Schaefer's fixed-point theorem.
Then the proof is completed.
In this part, we show how our main theorems work by a couple of examples.
We claim that (4.5) has at least one solution.
This research is supported by Ad Futura Scientific and Educational Foundation of the Republic of Slovenia, the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology of the Republic of Slovenia; the Nova Kreditna Banka Maribor; TELEKOM Slovenije; National Natural Science Foundation of China (10671127); National Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (08ZR1416000); and Foundation of Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (06XD14034).
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