- Research Article
- Open Access

# Existence Results for Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Integrodifferential Equations with Integral Boundary Conditions

- Bashir Ahmad
^{1}Email author and - Juan J Nieto
^{2}

**2009**:708576

https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/708576

© B. Ahmad and J.J. Nieto 2009

**Received: **9 December 2008

**Accepted: **23 January 2009

**Published: **12 February 2009

## Abstract

## Keywords

## 1. Introduction

In the last few decades, fractional-order models are found to be more adequate than integer-order models for some real world problems. Fractional derivatives provide an excellent tool for the description of memory and hereditary properties of various materials and processes. This is the main advantage of fractional differential equations in comparison with classical integer-order models. Fractional differential equations arise in many engineering and scientific disciplines as the mathematical modelling of systems and processes in the fields of physics, chemistry, aerodynamics, electrodynamics of complex medium, polymer rheology, and so forth, involves derivatives of fractional order. In consequence, the subject of fractional differential equations is gaining much importance and attention. For examples and details, see [1–22] and the references therein. However, the theory of boundary value problems for nonlinear fractional differential equations is still in the initial stages and many aspects of this theory need to be explored.

Integrodifferential equations arise in many engineering and scientific disciplines, often as approximation to partial differential equations, which represent much of the continuum phenomena. Many forms of these equations are possible. Some of the applications are unsteady aerodynamics and aero elastic phenomena, visco elasticity, visco elastic panel in super sonic gas flow, fluid dynamics, electrodynamics of complex medium, many models of population growth, polymer rheology, neural network modeling, sandwich system identification, materials with fading memory, mathematical modeling of the diffusion of discrete particles in a turbulent fluid, heat conduction in materials with memory, theory of lossless transmission lines, theory of population dynamics, compartmental systems, nuclear reactors, and mathematical modeling of a hereditary phenomena. For details, see [23–29] and the references therein.

Integral boundary conditions have various applications in applied fields such as blood flow problems, chemical engineering, thermoelasticity, underground water flow, population dynamics, and so forth. For a detailed description of the integral boundary conditions, we refer the reader to a recent paper [30]. For more details of nonlocal and integral boundary conditions, see [31–37] and references therein.

and are real numbers. Here, is a Banach space and denotes the Banach space of all continuous functions from endowed with a topology of uniform convergence with the norm denoted by

## 2. Preliminaries

First of all, we recall some basic definitions [15, 18, 20].

Definition 2.1.

where denotes the integer part of the real number

Definition 2.2.

provided the integral exists.

Definition 2.3.

provided the right hand side is pointwise defined on

In passing, we remark that the definition of Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, which did certainly play an important role in the development of theory of fractional derivatives and integrals, could hardly produce the physical interpretation of the initial conditions required for the initial value problems involving fractional differential equations. The same applies to the boundary value problems of fractional differential equations. It was Caputo definition of fractional derivative which solved this problem. In fact, the Caputo derivative becomes the conventional th derivative of the function as and the initial conditions for fractional differential equations retain the same form as that of ordinary differential equations with integer derivatives. Another difference is that the Caputo derivative for a constant is zero while the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of a constant is nonzero. For more details, see [20].

Lemma 2.4 (see [22]).

Now, we state a known result due to Krasnosel'skiĭ [38] which is needed to prove the existence of at least one solution of (1.1).

Theorem 2.5.

Let be a closed convex and nonempty subset of a Banach space Let be the operators such that (i) whenever , (ii) is compact and continuous, (iii) is a contraction mapping. Then there exists such that

Lemma 2.6.

Proof.

## 3. Main Results

Theorem 3.1.

Assume that is jointly continuous and maps bounded subsets of into relatively compact subsets of is continuous with and are continuous functions. Further, there exist positive constants such that

Proof.

which depends only on the parameters involved in the problem. As therefore is a contraction. Thus, the conclusion of the theorem follows by the contraction mapping principle.

Theorem 3.2.

Then the boundary value problem (1.1) has at least one solution on

Proof.

which is independent of So is relatively compact on Hence, By Arzela Ascoli Theorem, is compact on Thus all the assumptions of Theorem 2.5 are satisfied and the conclusion of Theorem 2.5 implies that the boundary value problem (1.1) has at least one solution on

Example 3.3.

Thus, by Theorem 3.1, the boundary value problem (3.15) has a unique solution on

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the anonymous referee for his/her valuable suggestions that led to the improvement of the original manuscript. The research of J. J. Nieto has been partially supported by Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia and FEDER, Project MTM2007-61724, and by Xunta de Galicia and FEDER, project PGIDIT05PXIC20702PN.

## Authors’ Affiliations

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