 Research Article
 Open Access
 Published:
Positive Solutions to Singular and Delay HigherOrder Differential Equations on Time Scales
Boundary Value Problems volume 2009, Article number: 937064 (2009)
Abstract
We are concerned with singular threepoint boundary value problems for delay higherorder dynamic equations on time scales. Theorems on the existence of positive solutions are obtained by utilizing the fixed point theorem of cone expansion and compression type. An example is given to illustrate our main result.
1. Introduction
In this paper, we are concerned with the following singular threepoint boundary value problem (BVP for short) for delay higherorder dynamic equations on time scales:
where , , , , , and . The functional is continuous and is continuous. Our nonlinearity may have singularity at and/or and may have singularity at .
To understand the notations used in (1.1), we recall the following definitions which can be found in [1, 2].
(a) A time scale is a nonempty closed subset of the real numbers . has the topology that it inherits from the real numbers with the standard topology. It follows that the jump operators ,
(supplemented by and ) are well defined. The point is leftdense, leftscattered, rightdense, rightscattered if , , , , respectively. If has a leftscattered maximum (rightscattered minimum ), define (); otherwise, set (). By an interval we always mean the intersection of the real interval with the given time scale, that is, . Other types of intervals are defined similarly.
(b) For a function and , the derivative of at , denoted by , is the number (provided it exists) with the property that, given any , there is a neighborhood of such that
(c) For a function and , the derivative of at , denoted by , is the number (provided it exists) with the property that, given any , there is a neighborhood of such that
(d) If then we define the integral
Theoretically, dynamic equations on time scales can build bridges between continuous and discrete mathematics. Practically, dynamic equations have been proposed as models in the study of insect population models, neural networks, and many physical phenomena which include gas diffusion through porous media, nonlinear diffusion generated by nonlinear sources, chemically reacting systems as well as concentration in chemical of biological problems [2]. Hence, twopoint and multipoint boundary value problems for dynamic equations on time scales have attracted many researchers' attention (see, e.g., [1–19] and references therein). Moreover, singular boundary value problems have also been treated in many papers (see, e.g., [4, 5, 12–14, 18] and references therein).
In 2004, J. J. DaCunha et al. [13] considered singular secondorder threepoint boundary value problems on time scales
and obtained the existence of positive solutions by using a fixed point theorem due to Gatica et al. [14], where is decreasing in for every and may have singularity at .
In 2006, Boey and Wong [11] were concerned with higherorder differential equation on time scales of the form
where are fixed integers satisfying , . They obtained some existence theorems of positive solutions by using Krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem.
Recently, Anderson and Karaca [8] studied higherorder threepoint boundary value problems on time scales and obtained criteria for the existence of positive solutions.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate further the singular BVP for delay higherorder dynamic equation (1.1). By the use of the fixed point theorem of cone expansion and compression type, results on the existence of positive solutions to the BVP (1.1) are established.
The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we give some lemmas, which will be required in the proof of our main theorem. In Section 3, we prove some theorems on the existence of positive solutions for BVP (1.1). Moreover, we give an example to illustrate our main result.
2. Lemmas
For , let be Green's function of the following threepoint boundary value problem:
where and satisfy the following condition:

(C)
(2.2)
Throughout the paper, we assume that .
From [8], we know that for any and ,
where
The following four lemmas can be found in [8].
Lemma 2.1.
Suppose that the condition (C) holds. Then the Green function of in (2.3) satisfies
Lemma 2.2.
Assume that the condition (C) holds. Then Green's function in (2.3) satisfies
Remark 2.3.
If , we know that is nonincreasing in and
Therefore, we have
where
If and satisfy the other cases, then we get that is nondecreasing in and
Lemma 2.4.
Assume that (C) holds. Then Green's function in (2.3) verifies the following inequality:
Remark 2.5.
If , then we find
So there exists a misprint on [8, Page 2431, line 23]. From (2.3), it follows that
Consequently, we get
If , , then, from (2.8), we obtain
Remark 2.6.
If we set , then we have
Denote
Thus we have
Lemma 2.7.
Assume that condition (C) is satisfied. For as in (2.3), put and recursively define
for . Then is Green's function for the homogeneous problem
Lemma 2.8.
Assume that (C) holds. Denote
then Green's function in Lemma 2.7 satisfies
where
Proof.
We proceed by induction on . We denote the statement by . From Lemma 2.7, it follows that
and from (2.18), we have
So is true.
We now assume that is true for some positive integer . From Lemma 2.7, it follows that
So holds. Thus is true by induction.
Lemma 2.9 (see [20]).
Let be a real Banach space and a cone. Assume that is completely continuous operator such that
(i) for and for ,
(ii) for and for .
Then has a fixed point with .
3. Main Results
We assume that and are strictly decreasing and strictly increasing sequences, respectively, with , and . A Banach space is the set of realvalued continuous (in the topology of ) functions defined on with the norm
Define a cone by
Set
Assume that
(C1) is continuous;
(C2) we have
for constants and with ;
(C3) the function is continuous and is continuous satisfying
We seek positive solutions , satisfying (1.1). For this end, we transform (1.1) into an integral equation involving the appropriate Green function and seek fixed points of the following integral operator.
Define an operator by
where .
Proposition 3.1.
Let (C1), (C2), and (C3) hold, and let , be fixed constants with . Then is completely continuous.
Proof.
We separate the proof into four steps.
Step 1.
For each , is bounded.
By condition (C3), there exists some positive integer satisfying
where
here, we used the fact that for each and ,
where
Set
Then we obtain
Consequently, is bounded and well defined.
Step 2.
. For every , we get from (2.22)
Then by the above inequality
This leads to .
Step 3.
We will show that is continuous. Let be any sequence in such that . Notice also that as ,
Now these together with (C2) and the Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem [10] yield that as ,
Step 4.
is compact.
Define
and an operator sequence for a fixed by
Clearly, the operator sequence is compact by using the ArzelaAscoli theorem [3], for each . We will prove that converges uniformly to on . For any , we obtain
From (C1), (C2), and the Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem [10], we see that the righthand side (3.19) can be sufficiently small for beingbig enough. Hence the sequence of compact operators converges uniformly to on so that operator is compact. Consequently, is completely continuous by using the ArzelaAscoli theorem [3].
Proposition 3.2.
It holds that is a solution of (1.1) if and only if .
Proof.
If and , then we have
and for any ,
From [8, Lemma 3.1], we know that on . So we conclude that is the solution of BVP (1.1).
For convenience, we list the following notations and assumptions:
From condition (C2) and (3.12), we have .
Theorem 3.3.
Assume that there exist positive constants with , and such that
(i) and ;
(ii) , for all and .
If (C1), (C2), and (C3) hold, then the boundary value problem (1.1) has at least one positive solution such that
Proof.
Define the operator by (3.6). From (i) and (3.23), it follows that there exists such that
We claim that
If it is false, then there exists some with , that is, which implies that for .
Set
We know from (2.22) and (3.27) that for ,
the first inequality of (C2) implies that
Clearly, (3.31) contradicts (3.29). This means that (3.28) holds.
Next we will show that
Suppose on the contrary that there exists some with for all .
For , from (i) and (3.24), there exists such that
and for , there exists , from (ii), such that
Put
If , then we take . It is easy to see that for and , , that is, . From (3.33) and (3.34), we find that
yielding a contradiction with for all . This means that (3.32) holds. Therefore, from (3.28), (3.32) and Lemma 2.9, we conclude that the operator has at least one fixed point . From the definition of the cone and (2.18), we see that for all . Thus, Proposition 3.2 implies that is a solution of BVP (1.1). So we obtain the desired result.
Adopting the same argument as in Theorem 3.3, we obtain the following results.
Corollary 3.4.
Let be as in Theorem 3.3.Suppose that (ii) of Theorem 3.3 holds and . If (C1), (C2), and (C3) holds, then boundary value problem (1.1) has at least one positive solution such that
Theorem 3.5.
Assume that there exist positive constants with , and , such that
(iii) and
(iv) , for all and .
If (C1), (C2), and (C3) hold, then boundary value problem (1.1) has at least positive solutions such that for
Example 3.6.
Let . Consider the following singular threepoint boundary value problems for delay fourorder dynamic equations:
where, for any , , , , , and ,
Clearly, we know that
Simple computations yield
Obviously,
If , then we have
Therefore, we get
From (3.25), it follows that
Thus,
Therefore, by Theorem 3.3, the BVP (3.39) has at least one positive solution such that
References
 1.
Atici FM, Guseinov GSh: On Green's functions and positive solutions for boundary value problems on time scales. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 2002, 141(12):7599. 10.1016/S03770427(01)00437X
 2.
Bohner M, Peterson A: Dynamic Equations on Time Scales: An Introduction with Application. Birkhäuser, Boston, Mass, USA; 2001:x+358.
 3.
Agarwal RP, Bohner M, Rehák P: Halflinear dynamic equations. In Nonlinear Analysis and Applications: To V. Lakshmikantham on His 80th Birthday. Vol. 1, 2. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; 2003:157.
 4.
Agarwal RP, OteroEspinar V, Perera K, Vivero DR: Multiple positive solutions of singular Dirichlet problems on time scales via variational methods. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2007, 67(2):368381. 10.1016/j.na.2006.05.014
 5.
Agarwal RP, OteroEspinar V, Perera K, Vivero DR: Multiple positive solutions in the sense of distributions of singular BVPs on time scales and an application to EmdenFowler equations. Advances in Difference Equations 2008, 2008:13.
 6.
Ahmad B, Nieto JJ:The monotone iterative technique for threepoint secondorder integrodifferential boundary value problems with Laplacian. Boundary Value Problems 2007, 2007:9.
 7.
Anderson DR: Solutions to secondorder threepoint problems on time scales. Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 2002, 8(8):673688. 10.1080/1023619021000000717
 8.
Anderson DR, Karaca IY: Higherorder threepoint boundary value problem on time scales. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 2008, 56(9):24292443. 10.1016/j.camwa.2008.05.018
 9.
Anderson DR, Smyrlis G: Solvability for a thirdorder threepoint BVP on time scales. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 2009, 49(910):19942001. 10.1016/j.mcm.2008.11.009
 10.
Aulbach B, Neidhart L: Integration on measure chains. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Difference Equations, 2004, Boca Raton, Fla, USA. CRC Press; 239252.
 11.
Boey KL, Wong PJY: Positive solutions of twopoint right focal boundary value problems on time scales. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 2006, 52(34):555576. 10.1016/j.camwa.2006.08.025
 12.
Cabada A, Cid JÁ: Existence of a solution for a singular differential equation with nonlinear functional boundary conditions. Glasgow Mathematical Journal 2007, 49(2):213224. 10.1017/S0017089507003679
 13.
DaCunha JJ, Davis JM, Singh PK: Existence results for singular three point boundary value problems on time scales. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2004, 295(2):378391. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2004.02.049
 14.
Gatica JA, Oliker V, Waltman P: Singular nonlinear boundary value problems for secondorder ordinary differential equations. Journal of Differential Equations 1989, 79(1):6278. 10.1016/00220396(89)901137
 15.
Henderson J, Tisdell CC, Yin WKC: Uniqueness implies existence for threepoint boundary value problems for dynamic equations. Applied Mathematics Letters 2004, 17(12):13911395. 10.1016/j.am1.2003.08.015
 16.
Kaufmann ER, Raffoul YN: Positive solutions for a nonlinear functional dynamic equation on a time scale. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2005, 62(7):12671276. 10.1016/j.na.2005.04.031
 17.
Khan RA, Nieto JJ, OteroEspinar V: Existence and approximation of solution of threepoint boundary value problems on time scales. Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 2008, 14(7):723736. 10.1080/10236190701840906
 18.
Liang J, Xiao TJ, Hao ZC: Positive solutions of singular differential equations on measure chains. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 2005, 49(56):651663. 10.1016/j.camwa.2004.12.001
 19.
Yaslan İ: Multiple positive solutions for nonlinear threepoint boundary value problems on time scales. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 2008, 55(8):18611869. 10.1016/j.camwa.2007.07.005
 20.
Guo DJ, Lakshmikantham V: Nonlinear Problems in Abstract Cones, Notes and Reports in Mathematics in Science and Engineering. Volume 5. Academic Press, Boston, Mass, USA; 1988:viii+275.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the referees for helpful comments and suggestions. The work was supported partly by the NSF of China (10771202), the Research Fund for Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Applied Mathematics (08DZ2271900), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (2007035805).
Author information
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Hu, L., Xiao, T. & Liang, J. Positive Solutions to Singular and Delay HigherOrder Differential Equations on Time Scales. Bound Value Probl 2009, 937064 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/937064
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
Keywords
 Dynamic Equation
 Fixed Point Theorem
 Nonlinear Diffusion
 Operator Sequence
 Singular Boundary