- Research Article
- Open Access
Homoclinic Solutions of Singular Nonautonomous Second-Order Differential Equations
© I. Rachůnková and J. Tomeček. 2009
- Received: 27 April 2009
- Accepted: 15 September 2009
- Published: 13 October 2009
- Differential Equation
- Functional Equation
- Local Maximum
- Point Theorem
- Lipschitz Constant
Clearly, the constant function is a solution of problem (1.1), (1.2). An important question is the existence of a strictly increasing solution of (1.1), (1.2) because if such a solution exists, many important physical properties of corresponding models can be obtained. Note that if we extend the function in (1.1) from the half–line onto (as an even function), then any solution of (1.1), (1.2) has the same limit as and . Therefore we will use the following definition.
A strictly increasing solution of problem (1.1), (1.2) is called a homoclinic solution.
Numerical investigation of problem (1.1), (1.2), where and , , can be found in [1, 4–6]. Problem (1.1), (1.2) can be also transformed onto a problem about the existence of a positive solution on the half-line. For , and for , , such transformed problem was solved by variational methods in [7, 8], respectively. Some additional assumptions imposed on were needed there. Related problems were solved, for example, in [9, 10].
Here, we deal directly with problem (1.1), (1.2) and continue our earlier considerations of papers [11, 12], where we looked for additional conditions which together with (1.3)–(1.8) would guarantee the existence of a homoclinic solution.
We call such solution an escape solution. The main result of  is that (under (1.3)–(1.8), (1.9)) the set of solutions of (1.1), (1.10) for consists of escape solutions and of oscillatory solutions (having values in ) and of at least one homoclinic solution. In  we omit assumptions (1.9) and prove that assumptions (1.3)–(1.8) are sufficient for the existence of an escape solution and also for the existence of a homoclinic solution provided the fulfils
If (1.12) is not valid, then the existence of both an escape solution and a homoclinic solution is proved in , provided that satisfies moreover
Assumption (1.13) characterizes the case that has just two zeros and in the interval . Further, we see that if (1.14) holds, then is either bounded on or is unbounded earlier and has a sublinear behaviour near .
This paper also deals with the case that satisfies (1.13) and is unbounded above on . In contrast to , here we prove the existence of a homoclinic solution for having a linear behaviour near . The proof is based on a full description of the set of all solutions of problem (1.1), (1.10) for and on the existence of an escape solutions in this set.
Finally, we want to mention the paper , where the problem
is investigated under the assumptions that is continuous, it has three distinct zeros and satisfies the sign conditions similar to those in [11, (3.4)]. In , an approach quite different from [11, 12] is used. In particular, by means of properties of the associated vector field together with the Kneser's property of the cross sections of the solutions' funnel, the authors provide conditions which guarantee the existence of a strictly increasing solution of (1.15). The authors apply this general result to problem
and get a strictly increasing solution of (1.16) for a sufficiently small . This corresponds to the results of , where may be arbitrary.
Let us put
Lemma 2.3 ().
we get (2.14).
Arguing as in the proof of Lemma 2.1, we get that problem (2.13), (2.19) has a unique solution on . In particular, for and , the unique solution of problem (2.13), (2.19) (and also of problem (1.1), (2.19)) is and , respectively.
In this section, under assumptions (1.3)–(1.8) and (1.13) we describe a set of all damped solutions which are defined in the following way.
We see, by (2.12), that is a damped solution of problem (1.1), (1.10) if and only if is a damped solution of problem (2.13), (1.10). Therefore, we can borrow the arguments of  in the proofs of this section.
According to the proof of Theorem 3.3, we see that if is oscillatory, it has just one positive local maximum between the first and the second zero, then just one negative local minimum between the second and the third zero, and so on. By (3.8), (3.9), (1.4)–(1.6) and (1.13), these maxima are decreasing (minima are increasing) for increasing.
Due to (1.4), we see that is strictly decreasing for as long as . Thus, there are two possibilities. If for all , then from Lemma 2.6 we get (2.21), which contradicts (3.10). If there exists such that , then in view Remark 2.4 we have . Using the arguments of Steps 3–5 of the proof of Theorem 3.3, we get that is damped, contrary to (3.10). Therefore, such cannot exist and on . Consequently, . So, fulfils (3.11). The inverse implication is evident.
Theorem 3.7 (on damped solutions).
Let be oscillatory. Then its first local maximum belongs to . Lemma 2.3 guarantees that if is sufficiently close to , the corresponding solution of (2.13), (1.10) has also its first local maximum in . This means that there exist and such that satisfies (2.26). Now, we can continue as in the proof of Theorem 3.3 using the arguments of Steps 2–5 and Remark 3.2 to get that is damped.
During the whole section, we assume (1.3)–(1.8) and (1.13). We prove that problem (1.1), (1.10) has at least one escape solution. According to Section 1 and Remark 2.2, we work with the following definitions.
Theorem 4.4 (on three types of solutions.).
By Definition 3.1, is damped if and only if (3.1) holds. By Lemma 3.5 and Definition 1.3, is homoclinic if and only if (3.10) holds. Let be neither damped nor homoclinic. Then there exists such that is bounded on , , . So, has its first zero and on . Assume that there exist such that and . Then, by Lemma 2.6, either fulfils (2.21) or has its second zero and, arguing as in Steps 2–5 of the proof of Theorem 3.3, we deduce that is a damped solution. This contradiction implies that on . Therefore, by Definition 4.1, is an escape solution.
Let and be a solution of problem (1.1), (1.10) with . So, fulfils (4.1) for some . Let be a solution of problem (2.13), (1.10) with . Then on and is increasing on . There exists and such that . Let be a solution of problem (2.13), (1.10) for some . Lemma 2.3 yields such that if , then . Therefore, is an escape solution of problem (2.13), (1.10). By Remark 4.3, is also an escape solution of problem (1.1), (1.10) on some interval .
This relation together with (4.6) implies (4.3).
Consider a solution of Lemma 4.6. If is an escape solution, then . Assume that is not an escape solution. Then both possibilities and can occur. Let . By Theorem 4.4 and Lemma 2.5, , . Let . We write , . Using Lemmas 3.5 and 2.5 and Theorem 4.4, we obtain and either or .
Theorem 4.9 (on escape solution).
In order to get a contradiction, we distinguish two cases.
The following theorem provides the existence of a homoclinic solution under the assumption that the function in (1.1) has a linear behaviour near . According to Definition 1.2, a homoclinic solution is a strictly increasing solution of problem (1.1), (1.2).
Theorem 5.1 (On homoclinic solution.).
For denote by the corresponding solution of problem (1.1), (1.10). Let and be the set of all such that is a damped solution and an escape solution, respectively. By Theorems 3.7, 3.8, 4.5, and 4.9, the sets and are nonempty and open in . Therefore, the set is nonempty. Choose . Then, by Theorem 4.4, is a homoclinic solution. Moreover, due to Theorem 3.7, .
The authors thank the referee for valuable comments. This work was supported by the Council of Czech Government MSM 6198959214.
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