- Taiyong Chen
^{1}Email author, - Wenbin Liu
^{1}and - Cheng Yang
^{1}

**Received: **2 March 2010

**Accepted: **19 August 2010

**Published: **25 August 2010

## Abstract

## 1. Introduction

Antiperiodic problems arise naturally from the mathematical models of various of physical processes (see [1, 2]), and also appear in the study of partial differential equations and abstract differential equations (see [3–5]). For instance, electron beam focusing system in travelling-wave tube's theories is an antiperiodic problem (see [6]).

During the past twenty years, antiperiodic problems have been studied extensively by numerous scholars. For example, for first-order ordinary differential equations, a Massera's type criterion was presented in [7] and the validity of the monotone iterative technique was shown in [8]. Moreover, for higher-order ordinary differential equations, the existence of antiperiodic solutions was considered in [9–12]. Recently, existence results were extended to antiperiodic boundary value problems for impulsive differential equations (see [13]), and antiperiodic wavelets were discussed in [14].

using of the main assumption as follows:

where , . Obviously, the inverse operator of is , where is a constant such that .

Notice that, when , the nonlinear operator reduces to the linear operator .

In the past few decades, many important results relative to (1.3) with certain boundary conditions have been obtained. We refer the reader to [17–20] and the references cited therein. However, to the best of our knowledge, there exist relatively few results for the existence of antiperiodic solutions of (1.3). Moreover, it is well known that the existence of antiperiodic solutions plays a key role in characterizing the behavior of nonlinear differential equations (see [21]). Thus, it is worthwhile to continue to investigate the existence of antiperiodic solutions for (1.3).

Note that, is also a -periodic solution of (1.4) or (1.5) if is a -antiperiodic solution of (1.4) or (1.5). Hence, from the arguments in this paper, we can also obtain the existence results of periodic solutions for above equations.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 contains some necessary preliminaries. In Section 3, we establish some sufficient conditions for the existence of antiperiodic solutions of (1.4), basing on Leray-Schauder principle. Then, in Section 4, we obtain two existence results of antiperiodic solutions with symmetry for (1.5). Finally, in Section 5, some explicit examples are given to illustrate the main results. Our results are different from those of bibliographies listed above.

## 2. Preliminaries

It is easy to prove that the mappings are completely continuous by using Arzelà-Ascoli theorem.

Next, we introduce a Wirtinger inequality (see [22]) and a continuation theorem (see [23, 24]) as follows.

Lemma 2.1 (Wirtinger inequality).

Lemma 2.2 (Continuation theorem).

## 3. Antiperiodic Solutions for (1.4)

In this section, an existence result of antiperiodic solutions for (1.4) will be given.

Theorem 3.1.

Assume that

Then (1.4) has at least one antiperiodic solution.

Remark 3.2.

When , is equal to 1. It is easy to see that condition ( ) in [15] is stronger than condition ( ) of Theorem 3.1.

We begin with some lemmas below.

Lemma 3.3.

where is a positive constant only dependent of and .

Proof.

The proof is complete.

Lemma 3.4.

where is a positive constant independent of .

Proof.

where . The proof is complete.

Now we give the proof of Theorem 3.1.

Proof of Theorem 3.1..

Obviously, the set is an open-bounded set in and zero element .

Obviously, the operator is completely continuous in and the fixed points of operator are the antiperiodic solutions of (1.4).

Consequently, the operator has at least one fixed point in by using Lemma 2.2. Namely, (1.4) has at least one antiperiodic solution. The proof is complete.

## 4. Antiperiodic Solutions with Symmetry for (1.5)

In this section, we will prove the existence of even antiperiodic solutions or odd antiperiodic solutions for (1.5).

Theorem 4.1.

Assume that

Proof.

Obviously, the operator is continuous.

*a prior bounds*in , that is, satisfies

where is a positive constant independent of . So that, our problem is reduced to construct one completely continuous operator in which sends into , such that the fixed points of operator in some open-bounded set are the even antiperiodic solutions of (1.5).

Obviously, the set is an open-bounded set in and zero element .

From the similar arguments in the proof of Theorem 3.1, we can prove that there exists at least one fixed point of operator in . Thus, (1.5) has at least one even antiperiodic solution. The proof is complete.

Theorem 4.2.

Assume that

Proof.

Obviously, the operator is continuous.

Based on the proof of Theorem 3.1, for the possible odd antiperiodic solutions of (4.3), there exists *a prior bounds* in
. Hence, our problem is reduced to construct one completely continuous operator
in
which sends
into
, such that the fixed points of operator
in some open-bounded set are the odd antiperiodic solutions of (1.5).

Obviously, the set is an open-bounded set in and zero element .

By a similar way as the proof of Theorem 3.1, we can prove that there exists at least one fixed point of operator in . So that, (1.5) has at least one odd antiperiodic solution. The proof is complete.

## 5. Examples

In this section, we will give some examples to illustrate our main results.

Example 5.1.

For , by direct calculation, we can get . Choosing , then (5.1) satisfies the condition of Theorem 3.1. So it has at least one antiperiodic solution.

Moreover, the conditions of Theorem 4.1 are also satisfied. Thus (5.1) has at least one even antiperiodic solution.

Example 5.2.

We choose . Obviously, (5.1) satisfies all the conditions of Theorem 4.2. Hence it has at least one odd antiperiodic solution.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the referees very much for their helpful comments and suggestions. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (10771212), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Science Foundation of China University of Mining and Technology (2008A037).

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Ahn C, Rim C:
**Boundary flows in general coset theories.***Journal of Physics*1999,**32**(13):2509-2525.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Kleinert H, Chervyakov A:
**Functional determinants from Wronski Green functions.***Journal of Mathematical Physics*1999,**40**(11):6044-6051. 10.1063/1.533069MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Aizicovici S, McKibben M, Reich S:
**Anti-periodic solutions to nonmonotone evolution equations with discontinuous nonlinearities.***Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications*2001,**43**(2):233-251. 10.1016/S0362-546X(99)00192-3MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Nakao M:
**Existence of an anti-periodic solution for the quasilinear wave equation with viscosity.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*1996,**204**(3):754-764. 10.1006/jmaa.1996.0465MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Souplet P:
**Optimal uniqueness condition for the antiperiodic solutions of some nonlinear parabolic equations.***Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications*1998,**32**(2):279-286. 10.1016/S0362-546X(97)00477-XMATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Lu Z:
*Travelling Tube*. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, China; 1962.Google Scholar - Chen YQ:
**On Massera's theorem for anti-periodic solution.***Advances in Mathematical Sciences and Applications*1999,**9**(1):125-128.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Yin Y:
**Monotone iterative technique and quasilinearization for some anti-periodic problems.***Nonlinear World*1996,**3**(2):253-266.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Aftabizadeh AR, Pavel NH, Huang YK:
**Anti-periodic oscillations of some second-order differential equations and optimal control problems.***Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*1994,**52**(1–3):3-21.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Chen T, Liu W, Zhang J, Zhang M:
**The existence of anti-periodic solutions for Liénard equations.***Journal of Mathematical Study*2007,**40**(2):187-195.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Liu B:
**Anti-periodic solutions for forced Rayleigh-type equations.***Nonlinear Analysis. Real World Applications*2009,**10**(5):2850-2856. 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2008.08.011MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Liu WB, Zhang JJ, Chen TY:
**Anti-symmetric periodic solutions for the third order differential systems.***Applied Mathematics Letters. An International Journal of Rapid Publication*2009,**22**(5):668-673. 10.1016/j.aml.2008.08.004MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Luo Z, Shen J, Nieto JJ:
**Antiperiodic boundary value problem for first-order impulsive ordinary differential equations.***Computers & Mathematics with Applications*2005,**49**(2-3):253-261. 10.1016/j.camwa.2004.08.010MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Chen HL:
**Antiperiodic wavelets.***Journal of Computational Mathematics*1996,**14**(1):32-39.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Wang K, Li Y:
**A note on existence of (anti-)periodic and heteroclinic solutions for a class of second-order odes.***Nonlinear Analysis. Theory, Methods & Applications*2009,**70**(4):1711-1724. 10.1016/j.na.2008.02.054MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Leibenson LS:
**General problem of the movement of a compressible fluid in a porous medium.***Izvestiia Akademii Nauk Kirgizskoĭ SSSR*1983,**9:**7-10.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Jiang D, Gao W:
**Upper and lower solution method and a singular boundary value problem for the one-dimensional**p**-Laplacian.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2000,**252**(2):631-648. 10.1006/jmaa.2000.7012MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Lian LF, Ge WG:
**The existence of solutions of m-point**p**-Laplacian boundary value problems at resonance.***Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica*2005,**28**(2):288-295.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Liu B, Yu JS:
**On the existence of solution for the periodic boundary value problems with**p**-Laplacian operator.***Journal of Systems Science and Mathematical Sciences*2003,**23**(1):76-85.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Zhang J, Liu W, Ni J, Chen T:
**Multiple periodic solutions of**p**-Laplacian equation with one-side Nagumo condition.***Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society*2008,**45**(6):1549-1559. 10.4134/JKMS.2008.45.6.1549MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Chen Y, Nieto JJ, O'Regan D:
**Anti-periodic solutions for fully nonlinear first-order differential equations.***Mathematical and Computer Modelling*2007,**46**(9-10):1183-1190. 10.1016/j.mcm.2006.12.006MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Croce G, Dacorogna B:
**On a generalized Wirtinger inequality.***Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems*2003,**9**(5):1329-1341.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Deimling K:
*Nonlinear Functional Analysis*. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 1985:xiv+450.MATHView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Gaines RE, Mawhin JL:
*Coincidence Degree and Nonlinear Differential Equations, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Vol. 568*. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 1977:i+262.Google Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.