# Electrogravitational stability of oscillating streaming fluid cylinder ambient with a transverse varying electric field

- Alfaisal A Hasan
^{1}Email author

**2011**:31

https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-2770-2011-31

© Hasan; licensee Springer. 2011

**Received: **29 May 2011

**Accepted: **11 October 2011

**Published: **11 October 2011

## Abstract

The electrogravitational instability of a dielectric oscillating streaming fluid cylinder surrounded by tenuous medium of negligible motion pervaded by transverse varying electric field has been investigated for all the perturbation modes. The model is governed by Mathieu second-order integro-differential equation. Some limiting cases are recovering from the present general one. The self-gravitating force is destabilizing only in the axisymmetric perturbation for long wavelengths, while, the axial electric field interior, the fluid has strong destabilizing effect for all short and long wavelengths. The transverse field is strongly stabilizing. In the case of non-axisymmetric perturbation, the self-gravitating force is stabilizing for short and long waves, while the electric field has stabilizing effect on short waves.

## Keywords

## 1. Introduction

The stability of self-gravitating fluid cylinder has been studied, for the first time, by Chandrasekhar and Fermi [1]. Later on, Chandrasekhar [2] made several extensions as the fluid cylinder is acted by different forces. Radwan [3, 4] studied the stability of an ideal hollow jet. Radwan [4] considered that the fluids are penetrated by constant and uniform electric fields. The stability of different cylindrical models under the action of self-gravitating force in addition to other forces has been elaborated by Radwan and Hasan [5, 6]. Radwan and Hasan [5] studied the gravitational stability of a fluid cylinder under transverse time-dependent electric field for axisymmetric perturbations. Hasan [7, 8] has discussed the stability of oscillating streaming fluid cylinder subject to combined effect of the capillary, self-gravitating, and electrodynamic forces for all axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric perturbation modes. Hasan [7, 8] studied the instability of a full fluid cylinder surrounded by self-gravitating tenuous medium pervaded by transverse varying electric field under the combined effect of the capillary, self-gravitating, and electric forces for all the modes of perturbations.

- 1.
*Geophysics:*the fluid of the core of the Earth and other theorized to be a huge MHD dynamo that generates the Earth's magnetic field because of the motion of the liquid iron. - 2.
*Astrophysics:*MHD applies quite well to astrophysics since 99% of baryonic matter content of the universe is made of plasma, including stars, the interplanetary medium, nebulae and jets, stability of spiral arm of galaxy, etc. Many astrophysical systems are not in local thermal equilibrium, and therefore require an additional kinematic treatment to describe all the phenomena within the system. - 3.
*Engineering applications:*there are many forms in engineering sciences including oil and gas extraction process if it surrounded by electric field or magnetic field, gas and steam turbines, MHD power generation systems and magneto-flow meters, etc.

In this article, we aim to investigate the stability of oscillating streaming self-gravitating dielectric incompressible fluid cylinder surrounded by tenuous medium of negligible motion pervaded by transverse varying electric field for all the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric perturbation modes.

## 2. Mathematical formulation

*R*

_{0}) dielectric constant

*ε*

^{(i)}while the surrounding medium is being with dielectric constant

*ε*

^{(e)}. Fluid is assumed to be incompressible, inviscid, self-gravitating, and pervaded by applied longitudinal electric field.

*E*

_{0}is the intensity of the electric field in the fluid while β is some parameters satisfy certain conditions. The components of ${\underset{\xaf}{E}}_{0}^{\left(i\right)}$ and ${\underset{\xaf}{E}}_{0}^{\left(e\right)}$ are considered along the utilizing cylindrical coordinates (

*r*,

*φ*,

*z*) system with

*z*-axis coinciding with the axis of the fluid cylinder. The fluid of the cylinder streams with a periodic velocity

where *ω* is constant and *U* is the speed at time *t* = 0.

*r*,

*φ*,

*z*) with the

*z*-axis coinciding with the axis of the fluid cylinder (as shown in Figure 1).

The basic equations for investigating the problem under consideration are being the combination of the ordinary hydrodynamic equations, Maxwell equations concerning the electromagnetic theory, and Newtonian self-gravitating equations concerning the self-gravitating matter (see [2, 7–10]).

where ρ, $\underset{\xaf}{u}$, and *P* are the fluid density, velocity vector, and kinetic pressure, respectively, and ${\underset{\xaf}{E}}^{\left(i\right)}$and ${\underset{\xaf}{V}}^{\left(i\right)}$ are the electric field intensity and self-gravitating potential of the fluid while ${\underset{\xaf}{E}}^{\left(e\right)}$ and ${\underset{\xaf}{V}}^{\left(e\right)}$ are these of tenuous medium surrounding the fluid cylinder, and *G* is the gravitational constant.

where *ϕ* and *ψ* are the potential of the velocity of the fluid and electrical potential.

## 3. Equilibrium state

where the subscript 0 here and henceforth indicates unperturbed quantities.

*r*=

*R*

_{0}. The non-singular solution in the unperturbed state is, finally, given as

## 4. Linearization

*t*is assumed to be of the form as

*Q*(

*r*,

*φ*,

*z*;

*t*) may be expressed as

where *η*(*t*) is the amplitude of the perturbation at an instant time *t*, *k*, any real number, is the longitudinal wave number along *z*-direction while *m*, an integer, is the azimuthal wave number.

*ϕ*,

*V*, and

*ψ*as follows:

where *A*_{1}(*t*), *B*_{1}(*t*), *B*_{2}(*t*), *C*_{1}(*t*), and *C*_{2}(*t*) are arbitrary functions of integrations to be determined, while *I*_{
m
} (*kr*) and *K*_{
m
} (*kr*) are the modified Bessel functions of the first and second kind of order *m*.

## 5. Boundary conditions

The non-singular solutions of the linearized perturbation equation given by the systems (21)-(25) and the solutions (16)-(17) of the unperturbed systems (12)-(14) must satisfy certain boundary conditions. Under the present circumstances, these appropriate boundary conditions could be applied as follows.

### (i) Kinematic conditions

*R*

_{0}. This condition, yield

where *x* = *k R*_{0} is, dimensionless, the longitudinal wave number.

### (ii) Self-gravitating conditions

*V*=

*V*

_{0}+ ε

*V*

_{1}+ ⋯ and its derivative must be continuous across the perturbed boundary fluid surface at

*r*=

*R*

_{0}. These conditions are given as

### (iii) Electrodynamic condition

*ψ*perturbed boundary surface at the initial position

*r*=

*R*

_{0}. These conditions could be written in the form

*r*=

*R*

_{0}, given by

where the quantity *ξ*_{1} is given in Appendix 1.

### (iv) The dynamical stress condition

*r*=

*R*

_{0}. This condition is given as follows

where the quantity *β*_{11} and *β*_{12} is given in Appendix I.

*η**(

*t*). By means of this relation, we may identify the (in-) stability states and also the self-gravitating and electrodynamic forces influences on the stability of the present model. However in order to do so, it is found more convenient to express this relation in the simple form

Equation 47 is Mathieu differential equation. The properties of the Mathieu functions are explained and investigated by Melaclan [11]. The solutions of Equation 47, under appropriate restrictions, could be stable and vice versa. The conditions required for periodicity of Mathieu functions are mainly dependent on the correlation between the parameters *a* and *q*. However, it is well known, see [11], that (*a*, *q*)-plane is divided essentially into two stable and unstable domains separated by the characteristic curves of Mathieu functions. Thence, we can state generally that a solution of Mathieu integro-differential equation is unstable if the point (*a*, *q*) say, in the (*a*, *q*)-plane lies internal and unstable domain, otherwise it is stable.

## 6. Discussions and limiting cases

The appropriate solutions of Equation 47 are given in terms of what called ordinary Mathieu functions which, indeed, are periodic in time *t* with period π and 2π.

*q*, the first region of instability is bounded by the curves

where Δ(0) is the Hill's determinant.

An approximation criterion for the stability near the neighborhood of the first stable domains of the Mathieu stability domains given by Morse and Feshbach [12] which is valid only for small values of *h*^{2} or *q*, i.e., the frequency *ω* of the electric field is very large.

*h*

^{2}and could be written as

*α*

_{1 and}

*α*

_{2}are, the two roots of the equality of the relation (51), being

The electrogravitational stability and instability investigations analysis should be carried out in the following two cases

(i). 0 < *b* < 2/3

^{2}is positive and therefore the two roots

*α*

_{1 and}

*α*

_{2}of the equality (51) are real. Now, we will show that both

*α*

_{1 and}

*α*

_{2}are positive. If

*α*

_{1}α +

*ve*then

*α*

_{1}must be negative and this means that

and this is contradiction, so *α*_{1} must be positive and consequently *α*_{2} ≥ 0 as well (noting that *α*_{2} > *α*_{1}). This means that both the quantities (*h*^{2} -*α*_{1}) and (*h*^{2} -*α*_{2}) are negative and that in turn show that the inequality (51) is identically satisfied.

(ii). 2/3 < *b* < 1

In this case, in which *b* < 1 and simultaneously 3*b* > 2, it is found that Δ^{2} is negative, i.e., Δ is imaginary; therefore, the two roots *α*_{1} and *α*_{2} are complex. We may prove that the inequality (51) is satisfied as follows.

*h*

^{2}-

*c*and

*α*

_{1,2}=

*c*

_{1}-

*ic*

_{2}where

*c*,

*c*

_{1}, and

*c*

_{2}are real, so

which is positive definite.

*ω*

_{0}of the electric field frequency

*ω*such that

*ω*>

*ω*

_{0}where

*ω*

_{0}is given by

*ω*= 0,

*β*= 0, and

*E*

_{0}= 0 and we suppose that

where σ is the temporal amplification and note by the way that ${\left(4\pi G{\rho}^{i}\right)}^{-\frac{1}{2}}$ has a unit of time. The relation (62) is identical to the gravitational dispersion relation derived for the first time by Chandrasekhar and Fermi [1]. In fact, they [1] have used a totally different technique rather than that used here. They have used the method of representing the solenoidal vectors in terms of poloidal and toroidal vector fields for axisymmetric perturbation.

To determine the effect of *ω*, it is found more convenient to investigate the eigenvalue relation (62) since the right side of it is the same the middle side of (60).

*x*α 0, that

based on the values of *x*.

^{2}/(4

*πGρ*

^{ i }) is identified if the sign of the quantity

is identified.

Here, it is found that the quantity *Q*_{0} (*x*) may be positive or negative depending on *x* α 0 values. Numerical investigations and analysis of the relation (62) reveal that σ^{2} is positive for small values of *x* while it is negative in all other values of *x*. In more details, it is unstable in the domain 0 < *x* < 1.0667 while it is stable in the domains 1.0667 ≤ *x* < ∞ where the equality is corresponding to the marginal stability state.

*ω*

_{0}of the periodic electric field

Therefore, we deduce that the electrodynamic force (with a periodic time electric field) has stabilizing influence and could predominate and overcoming the self-gravitating destabilizing influence of the dielectric fluid cylinder dispersed in a dielectric medium of negligible motion.

However, the self-gravitating destabilizing influence could not be suppressed whatever is the greatest value of the magnitude and frequency of the periodic electric field because the gravitational destabilizing influence will persist.

## 7. Numerical discussions

*ω*= 0 and consider the condition (61), then the second-order integro-differential equation of Mathieu equation (47) yields

*β*as

*β*< 1,

*β*= 1, and

*β*> 1 in the wide domain 0 ≤

*x*≤ 0.5. The numerical data of instability corresponding ${\sigma /\left(4\pi G{\rho}^{i}\right)}^{\frac{1}{2}}$ and those of stability corresponding to ${\zeta /\left(4\pi G{\rho}^{i}\right)}^{\frac{1}{2}}$ are collected and tabulated and presented graphically (see Figures 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6). There are many features and properties in this numerical presentation as we see in the following:

- (i)
For

*β*= 0.5 corresponding to*M*= 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.5 it is found that the electrogravitational unstable domains are 0 <*x*< 1.1175, 0 <*x*<1.19759, 0 <*x*< 1.27235, 0 <*x*1.29599, 0 <*x*< 1.362741, and 0 <*x*< 1.3978, the neighboring stable domains are 1.1175 ≤*x*< ∞, 1.19759 ≤*x*< ∞, 1.27235 ≤*x*< ∞, 1.29599 ≤*x*< ∞, 1.362741 ≤*x*< ∞, and 1.3978 ≤*x*< ∞, where the equalities correspond to the marginal stability states (see Figure 2). - (ii)
For

*β*= 1.0 corresponding to M = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.5 it is found that the electrogravitational unstable domains are 0 <*x*< 1.22669, 0 <*x*< 1.5266, 0 <*x*< 1.750969, 0 <*x*< 1.90513, 0 <*x*< 2.05422, and 0 <*x*< 2.19341, the neighboring stable domains are 1.22669 ≤*x*< ∞, 1.5266 ≤*x*< ∞, 1.750969 ≤*x*< ∞, 1.90513 ≤*x*< ∞, 2.05422 ≤*x*< ∞, and 2.19341 ≤*x*< ∞, where the equalities correspond to the marginal stability states (see Figure 3). - (iii)
For

*β*= 1.5 corresponding to*M*= 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.5 it is found that the electrogravitational unstable domains are 0 <*x*< 1.35924, 0 <*x*< 1.9735, 0 <*x*< 2.3982, 0 <*x*< 2.6563, 0 <*x*< 2.8835, and 0 <*x*< 3.0798, the neighboring stable domains are 1.35924 ≤*x*< ∞, 1.9735 ≤*x*< ∞, 2.3982 ≤*x*< ∞, 2.6563 ≤*x*< ∞, 2.8835 ≤*x*< ∞, and 3.0798 ≤*x*< ∞, where the equalities correspond to the marginal stability states (see Figure 4). - (iv)
For

*β*= 2.5, corresponding to*M*= 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.5 it is found that the electrogravitational fluid cylinder is completely stable not only for short wavelengths, but also for very long wavelengths and the gravitational unstable domains are completely suppressed (see Figure 5). - (v)
For

*β*= 3.0, corresponding to M = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.5 it is found that the electrogravitational fluid cylinder is completely stable not only for short wavelengths, but also for very long wavelengths and the gravitational unstable domains are completely suppressed (see Figure 6).

## 8. Conclusion

From the presented numerical results, we may deduce the following. For the same value of *M*, it is found that the unstable domains are increasing with increasing of *β* values. This means that the influence of electric field has a destabilizing effect for all short and long wavelengths.

If *β* > 2.0, then the model is completely stable not only for short wave lengths, but also for long wave lengths.

## Appendix I

$\begin{array}{cc}\hfill {\xi}_{1}& ={\epsilon}^{\left(i\right)}{{I}^{\prime}}_{m}\left(x\right){K}_{m}\left(x\right)-{\epsilon}^{\left(e\right)}{I}_{m}\left(x\right){{K}^{\prime}}_{m}\left(x\right)\hfill \\ \hfill {\beta}_{11}& =\frac{2\pi \rho {R}_{o}k{{I}^{\prime}}_{m}\left(x\right)-4\pi \rho x{{I}^{\prime}}_{m}\left(x\right){K}_{m}\left(x\right)}{{I}_{m}\left(x\right)}\hfill \\ \hfill {\beta}_{12}& =\frac{{k}^{2}{\left({\epsilon}^{\left(i\right)}\right)}^{2}{{I}^{\prime}}_{m}\left(x\right)}{{\xi}_{1}\rho}\left(1+m\beta -\frac{m\beta}{{R}_{o}}\right)+\frac{2{\beta}^{2}k{{I}^{\prime}}_{m}\left(x\right)}{{R}_{o}\rho {I}_{m}\left(x\right)}+\frac{i{\epsilon}^{\left(i\right)}{\epsilon}^{\left(e\right)}{{I}^{\prime}}_{m}\left(x\right)k}{{\xi}_{1}\rho}\left(\frac{m\beta}{{R}_{o}}\right)\left(1+m\beta -\frac{m\beta}{{R}_{o}}\right)\hfill \end{array}$

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the Editor of the Journal and the Reviewers for their suggestions and comments on this article.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Chandrasekhar S, Fermi E: Problems of gravitational stability in the presence of a magnetic field.
*Astrophys J*1953, 118: 116-141.View ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Chandrasekhar S:
*Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability.*Dover, New York; 1981.Google Scholar - Radwan AE: MHD stability of gravitational compressible fluid cylinder.
*J Phys Soc Jpn*1989, 58: 1225-1227. 10.1143/JPSJ.58.1225View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Radwan AE: Electrogravitational instability of an annular fluid jet coaxial with a very dense fluid cylinder under radial varying fields.
*J Plasma phys*1991, 44: 455-465.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Radwan AE, Hasan AA: Axisymmetric electrogravitational stability of fluid cylinder ambient with transverse varying oscillating field, (IAENG).
*Int J Appl Math*2008, 38(3):113-120.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Radwan AE, Hasan AA: Magnetohydrodynamic stability of selfgravitational fluid cylinder.
*Appl Math Model*2009, 33(4):2121-2131. 10.1016/j.apm.2008.05.014View ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Hasan AA: Electrogravitational stability of oscillating streaming fluid cylinder.
*Physica B*2011, 406(2):234-240. 10.1016/j.physb.2010.10.050View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Hasan AA: Electrogravitational stability of oscillating streaming fluid cylinder.
*J Appl Mech ASME*2011, in press.Google Scholar - Lin SH: Oxygen diffusion in a spherical cell with nonlinear oxygen uptake kinetics.
*Theor Biol*1976, 60: 449-457. 10.1016/0022-5193(76)90071-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Mestel AJ: The electrohydrodynamic cone-jet at high Reynolds number.
*J Aerosol Sci*1994, 25(6):1037-1047. 10.1016/0021-8502(94)90200-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Melaclan N:
*Theory and Application of Mathieu Function.*Oxford University Press, New York; 1964.Google Scholar - Morse PM, Feshbach H:
*Methods of Theoretical Physics Part I.*McGraw-Hill, New York; 1953.Google Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.