- Open Access
Application of p-regularity theory to nonlinear boundary value problems
© Grzegorczyk et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
- Received: 27 May 2013
- Accepted: 28 October 2013
- Published: 22 November 2013
The paper studies the question of solution existence to a nonlinear equation in the degenerate case. This question is studied for three particular boundary value problems for ordinary and partial second-order differential equations. The so-called p-regularity theory is applied to these purposes as an effective apparatus to investigate many nonlinear mathematical, physical and numerical problems. All results obtained in the paper are based on the constructions of this theory whose basic concepts were described by Tret’yakov. We recall the main definitions and theorems of p-regularity theory and illustrate the results by examples including singular boundary value problems. In the first and second ones, the description of solutions by a tangent cone at an initial point are given. In the third example, we formulate a sufficient condition for p-regularity (), which can be tested using the notion of resultant.
MSC: 47J05, 34B15, 34B16.
- p-factor operator
- differential equations
- nonlinear boundary value problems
where X, Y are Banach spaces and (). Let be a solution to this equation, i.e., . The above problem is called regular at the point if . Otherwise, problem (1) is called irregular, degenerate or singular at .
The construction of p-regularity [1–4] gives new possibilities for solving or describing degenerate problems (see, for instance, [5–7]). We are going to use it to certain questions that appear in many numerical applications. Namely, we consider the equation of rod bending and the nonlinear Laplace equation that describe many mathematical physics problems like string oscillation, membrane oscillation and so on.
where and , is the first of them.
where , .
where , , Δ is the Laplacian and ; moreover, is a certain function such that , , .
Note that the numbers −1 and −10 are the eigenvalues of the operators and Δ in equations (2) and (4), respectively. Moreover, in the first example, we could take instead of such that , , . It is important that the 2-regularity condition is fulfilled for the mapping at the point . We chose equation (3) in order to expose our results not only for . In equation (4) we have taken as an arbitrary representative element of eigenvalues of the Laplacian of the form , . Of course it is possible to take for example .
and refer to it as the p-kernel of the p th-order mapping.
The set is called the solution set for the mapping F. We call h a tangent vector to the set at if there exist and a function with the property that for we have and as (for the sake of simplicity, the record will be omitted in the following text of paper). The set of all tangent vectors at is called the tangent cone to M at and is denoted by . A map is regular at if . In the regular case, the tangent cone to the solution set coincides with the kernel of the first derivative of the map F. Recall the following theorem.
Theorem 1 (Classical Lyusternic theorem)
The notion of regularity is generalized to the notion of the so-called p-regularity which will be described in the next section.
where is a closed complementary subspace to , , with respect to Y, and is a projection operator onto along , . Finally, . The order p is chosen as the minimal number (if it exists) for which the above decomposition (5) holds.
where is a projection operator from Y along . Below we recall some important definitions for further considerations.
Definition 2 Let . The linear operator is called the p-factor operator.
for . In this representation, we assume that .
We say that F is completely degenerate at up to order p if , . In the completely degenerate case, the p-factor operator is equal to .
Definition 4 A mapping F is called p-regular at along h, , if (i.e., the operator is surjection).
Definition 5 A mapping F is called p-regular at , , if it is p-regular along every h belonging to the set .
Note that if , then F is automatically p-regular.
The following theorem gives a description of the tangent cone in the degenerate case.
Theorem 6 (Generalized Lyusternik theorem )
The following lemma will be important in the study of surjectivity of p-factor operators in the mentioned examples.
Lemma 7 Suppose that , where , are closed subspaces in Y, , . Let also be a projection onto along . Then .
This lemma is a straightforward consequence of the following simple lemma.
Lemma 8 Suppose that , where , are closed subspaces in Y, , , . Then iff and .
The proof is obvious. Lemma 7 follows from Lemma 8 if we put and .
where and . Observe that is a trivial solution of this equation.
In our case, and .
Note that . The general solution of the equation is . Taking into account the boundary condition, we obtain , and .
One can easily show that the boundary value problem , does not have a solution. Moreover, since , it follows that . This implies that the operator is not surjective, i.e., . Then , where and .
Using p-regularity theory and the generalized Lyusternik theorem, we obtain the following assertion. If the mapping F is p-regular () at the point with respect to the element , where , , , then there exist solutions , of equation (2) for , where is sufficiently small. Below we will describe a 2-factor operator and show its surjectivity.
This implies that , where .
Consider the first case , .
Putting and using Lemma 7, it suffices to take . Then from (6) we obtain and from where , . The solutions of equation (6) exist, and hence is surjective.
Hence , and . The solutions of equation (7) exist, hence is surjective in this case too. Therefore the mapping F is 2-regular at the point with respect to the element .
Using the generalized Lyusternik theorem, we can describe the solutions belonging to the tangent cone . For we have and for we have , where for and , is sufficiently small. Thus we obtain the following theorem.
where for and , is sufficiently small.
where , , can be investigated analogously. Similarly, we obtain the following result.
and , is sufficiently small.
where , , Δ is the Laplacian, with the assumption , , . The point is the trivial solution of the above equation.
We put .
In our case .
From p-regularity theory and the generalized Lyusternik theorem, we obtain the following assertion. If the mapping F is p-regular at the point with respect to the element , where , , , then there exist solutions , of equation (4) for , where is sufficiently small.
Thus we get the following condition: elements (that is, elements are the solutions of system (9)) if and only if either is an eigenvector of corresponding to the eigenvalue or . We will prove that for , the mapping F is always 2-regular and for any other , F is 2-regular if is not an eigenvalue of .
that is, .
Observe that for , , F is always 2-regular (since the matrix (10) has the maximal rank). Now put in (9). Then we get . This means that in this case and then F is 2-regular (in this trivial case, the equation has the unique solution ). Consider the other . Then equation (11) has the solution if . This means that is not an eigenvalue of .
where and .
This resultant is a quadratic form with , . Thus a sufficient condition of 2-regularity is that this form is positively or negatively defined. Therefore one obtains . In our case, one finds , and , so the test with resultants is effective.
Summing up we conclude from the generalized Lyusternic theorem: the tangent cone coincides with the 2-kernel and this gives the solutions.
for , where is sufficiently small.
The paper was inspired by Buchner, Marsden and Schecter’s article . The authors consider the bifurcation problem , where L is the elliptic self-adjoint operator on a suitable Banach space Y of functions, with another suitable Banach space of function X - the domain of , is a smooth map with and , - is an eigenvalue of L of multiplicity n, and . They use Lyapunov-Schmidt procedure to examine the above equation and show that is a bifurcation point and that there exist solutions different from . Our examples are special cases of the above problem, and we use p-regularity theory to prove the existence of solutions and give an approximative description of the solution set. The structure of the solution set is reduced to a study of the system of homogeneous algebraic equations.
This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research Grant No. 11-01-00786-a, by the Leading Research Schools Grant No. NSH-5264.2012.1 and by the Russian Academy of Sciences Presidium Program P-18.
- Izmailov AF, Tret’yakov AA: Factor-Analysis of Nonlinear Mappings. Nauka, Moscow; 1994. (in Russian)MATHGoogle Scholar
- Izmailov AF, Tret’yakov AA: 2-Regular Solutions of Nonlinear Problems. Theory and Numerical Methods. Nauka, Moscow; 1999. (in Russian)MATHGoogle Scholar
- Tret’yakov AA: Necessary conditions for optimality of p -th order. In Control and Optimization. MSU, Moscow; 1983:28-35. (in Russian)Google Scholar
- Tret’yakov AA: The implicit function theorem in degenerate problems. Russ. Math. Surv. 1987, 42: 179-180.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Prusinska A, Tret’yakov AA: A remark on the existence of solutions to nonlinear equations with degenerate mappings. Set-Valued Anal. 2008, 16: 93-104. 10.1007/s11228-007-0060-xMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Brezhneva OA, Tret’yakov AA, Marsden JE: Higher-order implicit function theorems and degenerate nonlinear boundary-value problems. Commun. Pure Appl. Anal. 2008, 7(2):293-315.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Tret’yakov AA, Marsden JE: Factor analysis of nonlinear mappings: p -regularity theory. Commun. Pure Appl. Anal. 2003, 2(4):425-445.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Buchner M, Marsden J, Schechter S: Applications of the blowing-up construction and algebraic geometry to bifurcation problems. J. Differ. Equ. 1983, 48: 404-433. 10.1016/0022-0396(83)90102-XView ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.