In this article, we study superconvergence of the finite element approximation to the solution of a general second-order elliptic boundary value problem in three dimensions over a fully uniform mesh of piecewise tensor-product linear triangular prism elements. First, we give the superclose property of the gradient between the finite element solution and the interpolant Πu. Second, we introduce a superconvergence recovery scheme for the gradient of the finite element solution. Finally, superconvergence of the recovered gradient is derived.
Superconvergence of the gradient for the finite element approximation is a phenomenon whereby the convergent order of the derivatives of the finite element solutions exceeds the optimal global rate. Up to now, superconvergence is still an active research topic (see [1–6]). Recently, we studied the superconvergence patch recovery (SPR) technique introduced by Zienkiewicz and Zhu [7–9] for the linear tetrahedral element and proved pointwise superconvergent property of the recovered gradient by SPR. For the linear tetrahedral element, Chen and Wang  also discussed superconvergent properties of the gradients by SPR and obtained superconvergence results of the recovered gradients in the average sense of the -norm. In addition, Chen  and Goodsell  derived superconvergence estimates of the recovered gradient by the -projection technique and the average technique, respectively. This article will use the SPR technique to obtain a superconvergence estimate for the gradient of the tensor-product linear triangular prism element. In this article, we shall use the letter C to denote a generic constant which may not be the same in each occurrence and also use the standard notations for the Sobolev spaces and their norms.
2 General elliptic boundary value problem and finite element discretization
We consider the model problem
Here is a rectangular block with boundary ∂ Ω consisting of faces parallel to the x-, y-, and z-axes. We also assume that the given functions , , and . In addition, we write , , and , which are usual partial derivatives.
To discretize the problem, one proceeds as follows. The domain Ω is firstly partitioned into subcubes of side h, and each of these is then subdivided into two triangular prisms. We denote by these uniform partitions as above. Thus . Obviously, we can write (see Figure 1), where D and L represent a triangle parallel to the xy-plane and a one-dimensional interval parallel to the z-axes, respectively.
We introduce a tensor-product linear polynomial space denoted by , that is,
where , stands for the linear polynomial space with respect to , and is the linear polynomial space with respect to z. The indexing set ℐ satisfies . Let be the linear interpolation operator with respect to , and let be the linear interpolation operator with respect to . Thus we may define the tensor-product linear interpolation operator by . Obviously, . In addition, the weak form of problem (2.1) is
Define the tensor-product linear triangular prism finite element space by
Thus, the finite element method of problem (2.2) is to find such that
Moreover, from the definitions of and , we may define a global tensor-product linear interpolation operator . Here . As for this interpolation operator, the following Lemma 2.1 holds (see ).
Lemma 2.1For Πuand , the tensor-product linear interpolant and the tensor-product linear triangular prism finite element approximation tou, respectively, we have the supercloseness estimate
3 Gradient recovery and superconvergence
For , we consider a SPR scheme of ∇v. We denote by the SPR-recovery operator for ∇v and begin by defining the point values of at the element nodes. After the recovered values at all nodes are obtained, we construct a tensor-product linear interpolation by using these values, namely SPR-recovery gradient . Obviously, .
Let us first assume that N is an interior node of the partition , and denote by ω the element patch around N containing 12 triangular prisms. Under the local coordinate system centered N, we let be the barycenter of a triangular prism , . Obviously, . SPR uses the discrete least-squares fitting to seek linear vector function such that
where . We define . If N is a boundary node, we calculate by linear extrapolation from the values of already obtained at two neighboring interior nodes, and (with diagonal directions being used for edge nodes and corner nodes) (see Figure 2). Namely,
Lemma 3.1Letωbe the element patch around an interior nodeN, and . Forthe interpolant tou, we have
Proof Choose and set in (3.1) to obtain . Therefore,
where , and the high-order term satisfies .
In (3.4), we write . For every , it is not difficult to verify . Thus, by the Bramble-Hilbert lemma , we have . Therefore,
Combining (3.3) and (3.5), we obtain the result (3.2). □
Lemma 3.2Forthe tensor-product linear interpolant tou, the solution of (2.2), andthe SPR recovery operator, we have the superconvergent estimate
Proof Denote by an affine transformation. Obviously, there exists an element , using the triangle inequality and the Sobolev embedding theorem , and (3.3), such that
where is a small patch of elements surrounding the triangular prism, . Due to the fact that for quadratic over ,
Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ: The superconvergence patch recovery and a posteriori error estimates. II. Error estimates and adaptivity. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 1992, 33: 1365-1382. 10.1002/nme.1620330703
Liu JH, Deng YJ, Zhu QD: High accuracy analysis of tensor-product linear pentahedral finite elements for variable coefficient elliptic equations. J. Syst. Sci. Complex. 2012, 25: 410-416. 10.1007/s11424-011-0045-6
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 11161039, the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China Grant LY13A010007, and the Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo City Grant 2013A610104.
Authors and Affiliations
Department of Fundamental Courses, Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Qianhu South Road, Ningbo, China
School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Shangrao Normal University, Zhimin Road, Shangrao, 334001, China
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
The first author gave the idea of this article and the methods of proving the main results. He also proved Lemmas 3.1 and 3.2. The second author provided the proof of Theorem 3.1 and the correction of the English language.
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