- Open Access
On decreasing solutions of second order nearly linear differential equations
© Řehák; licensee Springer. 2014
- Received: 9 January 2014
- Accepted: 7 March 2014
- Published: 21 March 2014
We consider the nonlinear equation , where r, p are positive continuous functions and , are continuous functions which are both regularly varying at zero of index one. The existence and asymptotic behavior of decreasing slowly varying solutions are studied. Our observations can be understood at least in two ways: as a nonlinear extension of results for linear equations; and as an analysis of the border case (‘between sub-linearity and super-linearity’) for a certain generalization of Emden-Fowler type equation.
MSC:26A12, 34C11, 34E05.
- nonlinear second order differential equation
- decreasing solution
- regularly varying function
the class being defined below. This condition justifies the terminology a nearly linear equation. Indeed, if we make the trivial choice , then (1) reduces to a linear equation. It is, however, clear that in contrast to linear equations, the solution space of (1) is generally neither additive nor homogeneous. Examples of and which lead to a nonlinear equation and can be treated within our theory are , , or , and many others.
where or , ; see e.g. [1, 3–5]. Usually the sub-linearity condition resp. the super-linearity condition is assumed, i.e., resp. , and such conditions play an important role in the proofs. Notice that from this point of view, our equation (1) (which arises as a variant of (3) with specific nonlinearities) is neither super-linear nor sub-linear, since the indices of regular variation of F and G are the same. Therefore, asymptotic analysis of (1) in the framework of regular variation requires an approach which is different from the usual ones for the above-mentioned Emden-Fowler equation with . The crucial property is now the fact that the nonlinearities in (1) are in some sense close to each other (they can differ by a slowly varying function). It turns out that a modification of some methods known from the linear theory is a useful tool. However, as we will see, some phenomena may occur for (1) which cannot happen in the linear case.
In addition to the above-mentioned works where the analysis of linear and nonlinear equations is made in the framework of regular variation, we recommend the monograph  where various asymptotic properties of linear and nonlinear differential equations are investigated.
We are interested in asymptotic behavior of solutions y to (1) such that for large t. Without loss of generality, we restrict our study to eventually positive decreasing solutions of (1); such a set is denoted as . As we will see, for any , .
where r and p are positive continuous functions on .
We use the usual convention: For eventually positive functions f, g we denote resp. as if resp. .
We start with recalling the definition of regularly varying functions introduced by J Karamata in 1930.
Definition 1 A measurable function is called regularly varying (at infinity) of index ϑ if for every ; we write . The class of slowly varying functions (at infinity), denoted by , is defined as .
(The uniform convergence theorem) The relation in the definition holds uniformly on each compact λ-set in .
- (ii)(The representation theorem) iff
where φ, ψ are measurable functions with and
(Karamata theorem (direct half)) If , then provided , and provided . The integral may or may not converge. The function resp. is a new function and such that as .
If in the above representation, then we speak of normalized regularly varying functions of index ϑ; we write . We denote .
Definition 2 A measurable function is said to be regularly varying at zero of index ϑ if for every ; we write .
Since regular variation of at zero of index ϑ means in fact regular variation of at infinity of index −ϑ, properties of functions can be deduced from theory of functions.
Here are some further useful properties of regularly varying functions.
If , then for every .
If , , as , then .
If , , then . If and , then , as .
For a continuous δ in the representation of a normalized regularly varying function of index ϑ, we have as .
If s positive function satisfies as , then .
If , , then as .
If with and with g nonincreasing, then as .
Let with be increasing in a right neighborhood of zero. Then , where stands for the inverse of g.
(viii) Since , we have . Denote . Then and hence the inverse of satisfies by [, Theorem 1.5.12]. We have . Hence, , which implies . □
We use the convention that a slowly varying component of (or ) is denoted as , i.e., .
Definition 3 A measurable function is said to belong to the class Π if there exists a function such that for , ; we write or .
The function w is called an auxiliary function for f. The class Π of functions f is, after taking absolute values, a proper subclass of . Auxiliary function is unique up to asymptotic equivalence.
We start with the simple result which gives the conditions guaranteeing slow variation of any solution in .
where is the inverse of G. Then we apply the existence result [, Theorem 1] to obtain .
where M, N are some positive constants which exist thanks to (6). Since the expression on the right hand side of (7) tends to zero, we get as , and follows. □
which implies . Since exists such that for large t, condition (5) follows.
A necessity is discussed from certain point of view also in Remark 4.
Remark 2 Observe that in Theorem 1 we are dealing with all solutions of (1). It follows from the fact that solutions cannot increase. Indeed, for a positive increasing solution u of (1), due to convexity, we have for some . By integrating, , which contradicts the fact the .
Remark 3 The statements of Theorem 1 and Remark 1 can be understood as a nonlinear extension of a part of [, Theorem 1.1].
and note that provided .
- (i)If , then(10)
(and ) as
- (ii)If , then(11)
(and ) as .
which implies (10) provided . Clearly then as , otherwise we get a contradiction with the divergence of the integral in (15). If holds, then we integrate (14) over obtaining (11). In this case, must tend to a positive constant as . Indeed, if as , then the left-hand side of (15) becomes unbounded which is a contradiction. □
Remark 4 A closer examination of the proof of Theorem 2 shows that the condition is somehow needed. Indeed, if we assume that this limit is finite and that , then in view of (15) we get contradiction. As a by-product we then have a non-existence of solutions. If holds when , then no conclusion whether or can generally be drawn. Note that such phenomena cannot occur in the linear case.
as by the Karamata theorem. Since , we obtain (13).
Remark 6 Observe that to prove asymptotic formulas for decreasing solutions of (1) we do not require (even one-sided) boundedness conditions on and such as (6). As for condition (9) from Theorem 2, it is not too restrictive. Many functions satisfy it, for example, as , or , .
Remark 7 Observe that the value −2 which is required for the index of regular variation of p is natural and consistent within our setting. Indeed, since we work with solutions, the expression on the left-hand side of (1), which is somehow close to the second derivative, is expected to be in .
Corollary 1 Assume that and . Let (6) and (9) hold. Then any solution belongs to . Moreover, and asymptotic formulas (10) or (11) hold.
which implies . The statement now follows from Theorem 1 and Theorem 2. □
Remark 8 Corollary 1 can be seen as a nonlinear extension of [, Theorem 0.1-A].
where and . Then , , as , and , . We restrict our considerations to positive (decreasing) solutions y of (1) such that for ; we have this requirement because we need to be increasing at least in a certain neighborhood of zero (here it is ). Note that a slight modification of F, namely , , ensures the required monotonicity of F on the (possibly bigger) interval .
as . Applying Corollary 1, we see that any eventually decreasing positive solution y of (1) (with for large t) obeys the same asymptotic behavior as y in (i).
Among others, the above examples show how the convergence/divergence of the integral can be affected by the behavior of both p and G.
Under the conditions of Theorem 2(i), it does not follow that as ; this fact was observed already in the linear case; see [, Remark 2]. However, we can give a lower estimate under quite mild assumptions. For technical reasons we consider positive decreasing solutions (1) on (provided .
- (i)Let and (5) hold. Then satisfies the estimate(17)
where M is some positive constant. The constant M can be taken such that
- (ii)In addition to the conditions in (i), assume that holds. Then implies and
where N is some positive constant. The constant N can be taken such that .
where the asymptotic relation holds as . Hence, as . Inequality (17) now easily follows from (21).
Since this estimate is a special case of (19), the rest of the proof is now clear. □
Remark 9 It is reasonable to require the conditions and when applying Theorem 3. Further notice that the proof of Theorem 3 does not require , in contrast to the approach known from the linear case, cf. [, Remark 2]. From this point of view, the result is an improvement even in the linear case. Nevertheless, in order to see Theorem 3 as a partial refinement of information as regards solutions treated in Theorem 2(i), it is reasonable to assume .
Remark 10 In view of almost monotonicity and the existence of an asymptotic inversion for functions with a nonzero index, many of our considerations could be extended to nonlinearities F and G which are not necessarily (eventually) monotone.
. For a general G however such a transformation is not at disposal, and we must proceed directly. Let denote the set of all eventually positive decreasing solutions of (4). An extension of Theorem 1 to (4) reads as follows.
for all , and , , for some . Then .
for large t. Hence, . □
and note that then . An extension of Theorem 2 to (4) reads as follows.
If , then (10) with instead of H holds and as .
If , then (11) with instead of H holds and as .
as , where we applied the Karamata theorem. Asymptotic formulas then follow similarly as (10) and (11) in the proof of Theorem 2. □
as , and the claim follows.
Remark 12 Assume that and with . Recall that in the previous theorem we assumed . Take . Then we get since the index of regular variation of is bigger than −1. Integrating (4) from to t, where is such that , , , we obtain . Hence, if we let t tend to ∞, then tends to ∞. Thus is eventually positive, which contradicts . In other words, this observation indicates that solutions should not be searched among solutions in this setting. We conjecture that we should take an increasing solution in order to remain in the set . Of course, some logical adjustments then have to be made, like taking instead of in (2). As for , we conjecture that this class somehow corresponds to solutions. Note that the integral (which is ‘close’ to the integral ) is divergent for resp. convergent for since .
We have not mentioned the remaining possibility so far, namely . This border case is probably the most difficult one, and it surely will require a quite different approach. The direct use of the Karamata theorem is problematic in contrast to the corresponding situations in other cases. If and , we cannot even say whether , are convergent or divergent. In fact, the situation is more tangled because of the presence of nonlinearities F, G, where components , are supposed to have a stronger effect than in the case .
Remark 13 In this last remark, we indicate some further directions for a possible future research. Asymptotic theory of nearly linear equations offers many interesting questions. This paper contains some answers but there are many issues which could be followed further. There is also some space for improving the presented results. We conjecture that our results can be generalized in the sense of replacing condition (2) by , , which would lead to a ‘nearly half-linear equation.’ We expect that - within our setting, with taking instead of in (2) - increasing solutions of (1) are in and asymptotic formulas can be established. In contrast to the linear case, a reduction of order formula is not at our disposal. A topic which would also be of interest is to obtain more precise information as regards solutions of (1), for instance, by means of the class , cf. [, Theorem 0.1-B].
The author acknowledges the support by the grant GAP201/10/1032 of the Czech Science Foundation and by RVO 67985840. The author thanks the both referees for their careful reading of the manuscript and helpful comments.
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