- Open Access
On the free boundary value problem for one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations with constant exterior pressure
© Lian and Liu; licensee Springer. 2014
- Received: 8 January 2014
- Accepted: 2 April 2014
- Published: 6 May 2014
In this paper, we consider the free boundary value problem (FBVP) for one-dimensional isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations (CNS) with density-dependent viscosity coefficient and constant exterior pressure. Under certain assumptions imposed on the initial data, the global existence and uniqueness of a strong solution to FBVP for CNS are established, in particular, the strong solution tends pointwise to a non-vacuum equilibrium state at an exponential time-rate as the time tends to infinity.
- Navier-Stokes equations
- free boundary value problem
- density-dependent viscosity coefficient
- exterior pressure
- strong solution
where , u and () stand for the flow density, velocity and pressure, respectively, and the viscosity coefficient is with . Note here that the case and in (1.1) corresponds to the viscous Saint-Venant system for shallow water.
Recently, there have been much significant progress achieved on the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with density-dependent viscosity coefficients. For instance, the mathematical derivations are obtained in the simulation of flow surface in shallow region [1, 2]. The existence of solutions for the 2D shallow water equations is investigated by Bresch and Desjardins [3, 4]. The well-posedness of solutions to the free boundary value problem with initial finite mass and the flow density being connected with the infinite vacuum either continuously or via jump discontinuity is considered by many authors; refer to [5–15] and the references therein. The global existence of classical solutions is shown by Mellet and Vasseur . The qualitative behaviors of global solutions and dynamical asymptotics of vacuum states are also made, such as the finite time vanishing of finite vacuum or the asymptotical formation of vacuum in large time, the dynamical behaviors of vacuum boundary, the large time convergence to rarefaction wave with vacuum, and the stability of shock profile with large shock strength; refer to [17–22] and the references therein.
In addition, some important progress has been made about free boundary value problems for multi-dimensional compressible viscous Navier-Stokes equations with constant viscosity coefficients for either barotropic or heat-conducive fluids by many authors; for example, in the case that across the free surface stress tensor is balanced by a constant exterior pressure and/or the surface tension, classical solutions with strictly positive densities in the fluid regions to FBVP for CNS (1.1) with constant viscosity coefficients are proved locally in time for either barotropic flows [23–25] or heat-conductive flows [26–28]. In the case that across the free surface the stress tensor is balanced by exterior pressure , surface tension , or both exterior pressure and surface tension , respectively, as the initial data is assumed to be near to a non-vacuum equilibrium state, the global existence of classical solutions with small amplitude and positive densities in fluid region to the FBVP for CNS (1.1) with constant viscosity coefficients is obtained. The global existence of classical solutions to FBVP for compressible viscous and heat-conductive fluids is also established with the stress tensor balanced by the exterior pressure and/or surface tension across the free surface; refer to [31, 32] and the references therein.
In this paper, we consider the free boundary value problem (FBVP) for one-dimensional isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations with density-dependent viscosity coefficient and constant exterior pressure, and we focus on the existence, regularities and dynamical behaviors of a global strong solution, etc. As we show that the free boundary value problem with regular initial data admits a unique global strong solution which tends pointwise to a non-vacuum equilibrium state at an exponential time-rate as the time tends to infinity (refer to Theorem 2.1 for details).
The rest of the paper is arranged as follows. In Section 2, the main results about the existence and dynamical behaviors of a global strong solution to FBVP with two different initial data for compressible Navier-Stokes equations are stated. Then, some important a priori estimates are given in Section 3 and the theorem is proven in Section 4.
and the positive constant is the exterior pressure.
note that the compatibility conditions between the initial data and boundary conditions hold. Then we have the global existence and time-asymptotical behavior of a strong solution as follows.
Theorem 2.1 (FBVP)
with being a constant independent of time.
where and are positive constants independent of time.
Remark 2.1 Theorem 2.1 holds for the one-dimensional Saint-Venant model for shallow water, i.e., , .
Remark 2.2 The initial constraints (2.8) and (2.9) do not always require that the perturbation of the initial data around the equilibrium state is small. Indeed, it can be large provided that the state is large enough.
and the consistencies between the initial data and boundary conditions hold.
Next, we deduce the a priori estimates for the solution to FBVP (3.2).
which leads to (3.5) after the integration with respect to . □
where satisfies and , satisfies and .
From (3.12), (3.17) and (3.19), we have (3.7).
gives rise to (3.8). □
where and are positive constants independent of time.
The proof of this lemma is completed. □
We also have the regularity estimates for the solution to FBVP (3.2) as follows.
which implies , and it follows from the definition of and that . The proof of this lemma is completed. □
Finally, we give the large time behaviors of the strong solution as follows.
where and denote two positive constants independent of time.
where C is a positive constant independent of time.
we can deduce (3.56). □
Proof The global existence of a unique strong solution to FBVP (1.1) and (2.1) can be established in terms of the short time existence carried out as in , the uniform a priori estimates and the analysis of regularities, which indeed follow from Lemmas 3.1-3.4. We omit the details. The large time behaviors follow from Lemma 3.5 directly. The proof of Theorem 2.1 is completed. □
The authors thank the referee for the helpful comments and suggestions on the paper. The research of Ruxu Lian is supported by NNSFC No. 11101145, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation No. 2012M520360, Doctoral Foundation of North China University of Water Sources and Electric Power No. 201032, Innovation Scientists and Technicians Troop Construction Projects of Henan Province. The research of Jian Liu is supported by NNSFC No. 11326140, the Doctoral Starting up Foundation of QuZhou University No. BSYJ201314.
- Gerbeau JF, Perthame B: Derivation of viscous Saint-Venant system for laminar shallow water, numerical validation. Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., Ser. B 2001, 1: 89-102.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Marche F: Derivation of a new two-dimensional viscous shallow water model with varying topography, bottom friction and capillary effects. Eur. J. Mech. B, Fluids 2007, 26: 49-63. 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2006.04.007MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Bresch D, Desjardins B: Existence of global weak solutions for a 2D viscous shallow water equations and convergence to the quasi-geostrophic model. Commun. Math. Phys. 2003, 238: 211-223.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Bresch D, Desjardins B: On the construction of approximate solutions for the 2D viscous shallow water model and for compressible Navier-Stokes models. J. Math. Pures Appl. 2006, 86: 362-368. 10.1016/j.matpur.2006.06.005MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Fang D, Zhang T: Global solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow with density-dependent viscosity and discontinuous initial data. J. Differ. Equ. 2006, 222: 63-94. 10.1016/j.jde.2005.07.011MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Guo Z, Li H, Xin Z: Lagrange structure and dynamics for solutions to the spherically symmetric compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Commun. Math. Phys. 2012, 309: 371-412. 10.1007/s00220-011-1334-6MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Jiang S, Xin Z, Zhang P: Global weak solutions to 1D compressible isentropy Navier-Stokes with density-dependent viscosity. Methods Appl. Anal. 2005, 12: 239-252.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Lian R, Guo Z, Li H: Dynamical behaviors of vacuum states for 1D compressible Navier-Stokes equations. J. Differ. Equ. 2010, 248: 1926-1954. 10.1016/j.jde.2009.11.029MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Liu J: Local existence of solution to free boundary value problem for compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Acta Math. Sci., Ser. B 2012, 32: 1298-1320. 10.1016/S0252-9602(12)60100-3View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Liu T, Xin Z, Yang T: Vacuum states for compressible flow. Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 1998, 4: 1-32.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Okada M, Nečasoá ŠM, Makino T: Free boundary problem for the equation of one-dimensional motion of compressible gas with density-dependent viscosity. Ann. Univ. Ferrara, Sez. 7: Sci. Mat. 2002, 48: 1-20.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Vong S, Yang T, Zhu C: Compressible Navier-Stokes equations with degenerate viscosity coefficient and vacuum (II). J. Differ. Equ. 2003, 192: 475-501. 10.1016/S0022-0396(03)00060-3MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Yang T, Yao Z, Zhu C: Compressible Navier-Stokes equations with density-dependent viscosity and vacuum. Commun. Partial Differ. Equ. 2001, 26: 965-981. 10.1081/PDE-100002385MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Yang T, Zhao H: A vacuum problem for the one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations with density-dependent viscosity. J. Differ. Equ. 2002, 184: 163-184. 10.1006/jdeq.2001.4140View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Yang T, Zhu C: Compressible Navier-Stokes equations with degenerate viscosity coefficient and vacuum. Commun. Math. Phys. 2002, 230: 329-363. 10.1007/s00220-002-0703-6MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Mellet A, Vasseur A: Existence and uniqueness of global strong solutions for one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. SIAM J. Math. Anal. 2008, 39: 1344-1365. 10.1137/060658199MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Guo Z, Jiu Q, Xin Z: Spherically symmetric isentropic compressible flows with density-dependent viscosity coefficients. SIAM J. Math. Anal. 2008, 39: 1402-1427. 10.1137/070680333MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Jiu Q, Wang Y, Xin Z: Stability of rarefaction waves to the 1D compressible Navier-Stokes equations with density-dependent viscosity. Commun. Partial Differ. Equ. 2011, 36: 602-634. 10.1080/03605302.2010.516785MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Jiu Q, Xin Z: The Cauchy problem for 1D compressible flows with density-dependent viscosity coefficients. Kinet. Relat. Models 2008, 1: 313-330.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Li H, Li J, Xin Z: Vanishing of vacuum states and blow-up phenomena of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Commun. Math. Phys. 2008, 281: 401-444. 10.1007/s00220-008-0495-4MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Lian R, Liu J, Li H, Xiao L: Cauchy problem for the one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Acta Math. Sci., Ser. B 2012, 32: 315-324. 10.1016/S0252-9602(12)60019-8MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Xin Z: Blowup of smooth solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes equation with compact density. Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 1998, 51: 229-240. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0312(199803)51:3<229::AID-CPA1>3.0.CO;2-CView ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Solonnikov VA, Tani A: Free boundary problem for a viscous compressible flow with a surface tension. II. In Constantin Carathéodory: An International Tribute. World Scientific, Teaneck; 1991:1270-1303.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zajaczkowski WM: Existence of local solutions for free boundary problems for viscous compressible barotropic fluids. Ann. Pol. Math. 1995, 60: 255-287.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Zajaczkowski WM: On nonstationary motion of a compressible barotropic viscous fluid bounded by a free surface. Diss. Math. 1993, 324: 1-101.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Secchi P, Valli A: A free boundary problem for compressible viscous fluids. J. Reine Angew. Math. 1983, 341: 1-31.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Tani A: On the free boundary value problem for compressible viscous fluid motion. J. Math. Kyoto Univ. 1981, 21: 839-859.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Zadrzyńska E, Zajaczkowski WM: On local motion of a general compressible viscous heat conducting fluid bounded by a free surface. Ann. Pol. Math. 1994, 59: 133-170.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Solonnikov VA, Tani A: Evolution free boundary problem for equations of motion of viscous compressible barotropic liquid. Lecture Notes in Math. 1530. In The Navier-Stokes Equations II - Theory and Numerical Methods. Springer, Berlin; 1992:30-55. Oberwolfach, 1991View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zajaczkowski WM: On nonstationary motion of a compressible barotropic viscous capillary fluid bounded by a free surface. SIAM J. Math. Anal. 1994, 25: 1-84. 10.1137/S0036141089173207MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Zadrzyńska E: Evolution free boundary problem for equations of viscous compressible heat-conducting capillary fluids. Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 2001, 24: 713-743. 10.1002/mma.238MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Zadrzyńska E, Zajaczkowski WM: On the global existence theorem for a free boundary problem for equations of a viscous compressible heat conducting capillary fluid. J. Appl. Anal. 1996, 2: 125-169.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.