Skip to main content

RETRACTED ARTICLE: New applications of Schrödingerean Green potential to boundary behaviors of superharmonic functions

This article was retracted on 19 July 2021

This article has been updated

Abstract

By using the Schrödingerean continuation theorem due to Li (Bound. Value Probl. 2015:242, 2015), we obtain some new results for boundary value problems of Schrödingerean Green potentials. As new applications, the boundary behaviors of superharmonic functions at infinity are also obtained.

Introduction

Cartesian coordinates of a point G of \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\), \(n\geq2\), are denoted by \((X,x_{n})\), where \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) is the n-dimensional Euclidean space and \(X=(x_{1},x_{2},\ldots,x_{n-1})\). We introduce spherical coordinates for \(G=(r,\Xi)\) \((\Xi=(\theta _{1},\theta_{2},\ldots,\theta_{n-1}))\) by \(\vert x\vert =r\),

$$\textstyle\begin{cases} x_{n}=r\cos\theta_{1}, \qquad x_{1}=r(\prod_{j=1}^{n-1}\sin\theta_{j})& n= 2, \\ x_{n-m+1}=r(\prod_{j=1}^{m-1}\sin\theta_{j})\cos\theta_{m} & n\geq3, \end{cases} $$

where \(0\leq r<+\infty\), \(-\frac{1}{2}\pi\leq\theta_{n-1}< \frac{3}{2}\pi\) and \(0\leq\theta_{j}\leq\pi\) for \(1\leq j\leq n-2\) (\(n\geq3\)).

We denote the unit sphere and the upper half unit sphere by \(\mathbf{S}^{n-1}\) and \(\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}\), respectively. Let \(\Sigma \subset\mathbf{S}^{n-1}\). The point \((1,\Xi)\) and the set \(\{\Xi; (1, \Xi)\in\Sigma\}\) are identified with Ξ and Σ, respectively. Let \(\Xi\times\Sigma\) denote the set \(\{(r,\Xi) \in\mathbf{R}^{n}; r\in\Xi,(1,\Xi)\in\Sigma\}\), where \(\Xi\subset \mathbf{R}_{+}\). The set \(\mathbf{R}_{+}\times\Sigma\) is denoted by \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\), which is called a cone. Especially, the set \(\mathbf{R}_{+}\times\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}\) is called the upper-half space, which is denoted by \(\mathcal{T}_{n}\). Let \(I\subset\mathbf{R}\). Two sets \(I\times\Sigma\) and \(I\times\partial {\Sigma}\) are denoted by \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma;I)\) and \(\daleth_{n}( \Sigma;I)\), respectively. We denote \(\daleth_{n}(\Sigma; \mathbf{R} ^{+})\) by \(\daleth_{n}(\Sigma)\), which is \(\partial{\beth_{n}( \Sigma)}-\{O\}\).

Let \(B(G,l)\) denote the open ball, where \(G\in\mathbf{R}^{n}\) is the center and \(l>0\) is the radius.

Definition 1

Let \(E\subset\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\). If there exists a sequence of countable balls \(\{B_{k}\}\) (\(k=1,2,3,\ldots\)) with centers in \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) satisfying

$$E\subset\bigcup_{k=0}^{\infty} B_{k}, $$

then we say that E has a covering \(\{r_{k},R_{k}\}\), where \(r_{k}\) is the radius of \(B_{k}\) and \(R_{k}\) is the distance from the origin to the center of \(B_{k}\).

In spherical coordinates the Laplace operator is

$$\Delta_{n}=r^{-2}\Lambda_{n}+r^{-1}(n-1) \frac{\partial}{\partial r}+\frac{ \partial^{2}}{\partial r^{2}}, $$

where \(\Lambda_{n}\) is the Beltrami operator. Now we consider the boundary value problem

$$\begin{aligned}& (\Lambda_{n}+\tau)h=0 \quad \text{on } \Sigma, \\& h=0 \quad \text{on } \partial{\Sigma}. \end{aligned}$$

If the least positive eigenvalue of it is denoted by \(\tau_{\Sigma}\), then we can denote by \(h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\) the normalized positive eigenfunction corresponding to it.

We denote by \(\iota_{\Sigma}\) (>0) and \(-\kappa_{\Sigma}\) (<0) two solutions of the problem \(t^{2}+(n-2)t-\tau_{\Sigma}=0\), Then \(\iota_{\Sigma}+\kappa_{\Sigma}\) is denoted by \(\varrho_{\Sigma}\) for the sake of simplicity.

Remark 1

In the case \(\Sigma=\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}\), it follows that

  1. (I)

    \(\iota_{\Sigma}=1\) and \(\kappa_{\Sigma}=n-1\).

  2. (II)

    \(h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)=\sqrt{\frac{2n}{w_{n}}}\cos\theta_{1}\), where \(w_{n}\) is the surface area of \(\mathbf{S}^{n-1}\).

It is easy to see that the set \(\partial{\beth_{n}(\Sigma)}\cup\{ \infty\}\) is the Martin boundary of \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\). For any \(G\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and any \(H\in\partial{\beth_{n}(\Sigma)} \cup\{\infty\}\), if the Martin kernel is denoted by \(\mathcal{MK}(G,H)\), where a reference point is chosen in advance, then we see that (see [2], p.292)

$$\mathcal{MK}(G,\infty)=r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\quad \text{and}\quad \mathcal{MK}(G,O)=cr^{-\kappa_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}( \Xi), $$

where \(G=(r,\Xi)\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and c is a positive number.

We shall say that two positive real valued functions f and g are comparable and write \(f\approx g\) if there exist two positive constants \(c_{1}\leq c_{2}\) such that \(c_{1}g\leq f\leq c_{2}g\).

Remark 2

Let \(\Xi\in\Sigma\). Then \(h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\) and \(\operatorname{dist}(\Xi,\partial{\Sigma})\) are comparable (see [3]).

Remark 3

Let \(\varrho(G)=\operatorname{dist}(G,\partial {\beth_{n}(\Sigma)})\). Then \(h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\) and \(\varrho(G) \) are comparable for any \((1,\Xi)\in\Sigma\) (see [4]).

Remark 4

Let \(0\leq\alpha\leq n\). Then \(h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\leq c_{3}(\Sigma,n)\{h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\}^{1- \alpha}\), where \(c_{3}(\Sigma,n)\) is a constant depending on Σ and n (e.g. see [5], pp.126-128).

Definition 2

For any \(G\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and any \(H\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\). If the Green function in \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) is defined by \(\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}(G,H)\), then:

  1. (I)

    The Poisson kernel can be defined by

    $$\mathcal{POI}_{\Sigma}(G,H)=\frac{\partial}{\partial n_{H}} \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}(G,H), $$

    where \(\frac{\partial}{\partial n_{H}}\) denotes the differentiation at H along the inward normal into \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\).

  2. (II)

    The Green potential on \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) can be defined by

    $$\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma} \nu(G)= \int_{\beth_{n}(\Sigma)}\mathcal{GF} _{\Sigma}(G,H)\,d\nu(H), $$

    where \(G\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and ν is a positive measure in \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\).

Definition 3

For any \(G\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and any \(H\in\daleth_{n}(\Sigma)\). Let μ be a positive measure on \(\daleth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and g be a continuous function on \(\daleth_{n}(\Sigma)\). Then (see [6]):

  1. (I)

    The Poisson integral with μ can be defined by

    $$\mathcal{POI}_{\Sigma} \mu(G)= \int_{\daleth_{n}(\Sigma)} \mathcal{POI}_{\Sigma}(G,H)\,d\mu(H). $$
  2. (II)

    The Poisson integral with g can be defined by

    $$\mathcal{POI}_{\Sigma} [g](G)= \int_{\daleth_{n}(\Sigma)} \mathcal{POI}_{\Sigma}(G,H)g(H)\,d\sigma_{H}, $$

where \(d\sigma_{H}\) is the surface area element on \(\daleth_{n}( \Sigma)\).

Definition 4

Let μ be defined in Definition 3. Then the positive measure \(\mu'\) is defined by

$$d\mu'=\textstyle\begin{cases} \frac{\partial h_{\Sigma}(\Omega)}{\partial n_{\Omega}} t^{- \kappa_{\Sigma}-1}\,d\mu& \mbox{on } \daleth_{n}(\Sigma; (1,+\infty)) , \\ 0 & \mbox{on } \mathbf{R}^{n}-\daleth_{n}(\Sigma; (1,+\infty)). \end{cases} $$

Definition 5

Let ν be any positive measure in \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) satisfying

$$ \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma} \nu(G)\not\equiv+\infty $$
(1.1)

for any \(G\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\). Then the positive measure \(\nu'\) is defined by

$$d\nu'=\textstyle\begin{cases} h_{\Sigma}(\Omega) t^{-\kappa_{\Sigma}}\,d\nu& \mbox{on } \beth_{n}(\Sigma; (1,+\infty)) , \\ 0& \mbox{on } \mathbf{R}^{n}-\beth_{n}(\Sigma; (1,+\infty)). \end{cases} $$

Definition 6

Let ν be any positive measure in \(\mathcal{T}_{n}\) such that (1.1) holds for any \(G\in\beth _{n}(\Sigma)\). Then the positive measure \(\nu_{1}\) is defined by

$$d\nu_{1}=\textstyle\begin{cases} h_{\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}}(\Omega) t^{1-n}\,d\nu& \mbox{on } \mathcal{T}_{n}(1,+\infty) , \\ 0& \mbox{on } \mathbf{R}^{n}-\mathcal{T}_{n}(1,+\infty). \end{cases} $$

Definition 7

Let μ and ν be defined in Definitions 3 and 4, respectively. Then the positive measure ξ is defined by

$$d\xi=\textstyle\begin{cases} t^{-1-\kappa_{\Sigma}}\,d\xi' & \mbox{on } \overline{\beth_{n}(\Sigma; (1,+\infty))} , \\ 0& \mbox{on } \mathbf{R}^{n}-\overline{\beth_{n}(\Sigma; (1,+\infty))}, \end{cases} $$

where

$$d\xi'=\textstyle\begin{cases} \frac{\partial h_{\Sigma}(\Omega)}{\partial n_{\Omega}}\,d\mu(H) & \mbox{on } \in\daleth_{n}(\Sigma; (1,+\infty)) , \\ h_{\Sigma}(\Omega)t\,d\nu(H)& \mbox{on } \in\beth_{n}(\Sigma; (1,+\infty)). \end{cases} $$

Remark 5

Let \(\Sigma=\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}\). Then

$$\mathcal{GF}_{\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}}(G,H)= \textstyle\begin{cases} \log \vert G-H^{\ast} \vert -\log \vert G-H\vert & \mbox{if } n=2, \\ \vert G-H\vert ^{2-n}-\vert G-H^{\ast} \vert ^{2-n} & \mbox{if } n\geq3, \end{cases} $$

where \(G=(X,x_{n})\), \(H^{\ast}=(Y,-y_{n})\), that is, \(H^{\ast}\) is the mirror image of \(H=(Y,y_{n})\) with respect to \(\partial{\mathcal{T} _{n}}\). Hence, for the two points \(G=(X,x_{n})\in\mathcal{T}_{n}\) and \(H=(Y,y_{n})\in\partial{\mathcal{T}_{n}}\), we have

$$\begin{aligned} \mathcal{POI}_{\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}}(G,H) =&\frac{\partial}{\partial n _{y}}\mathcal{GF}_{\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}}(G,H) \\ =& \textstyle\begin{cases} 2x_{n}\vert G-H\vert ^{-2} & \mbox{if } n=2, \\ 2(n-2)x_{n}\vert G-H\vert ^{-n} & \mbox{if } n\geq3. \end{cases}\displaystyle \end{aligned}$$

Remark 6

Let \(\Sigma=\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}\). Then we define

$$d\varrho=\textstyle\begin{cases} \frac{d\varrho'}{\vert y\vert ^{n}} & \mbox{on } \overline{\mathcal{T}_{n}} , \\ 0& \mbox{on } \mathbf{R}^{n}-\overline{\mathcal{T}_{n}}, \end{cases} $$

where

$$d\varrho'(y)=\textstyle\begin{cases} d\mu& \mbox{on } \partial{\mathcal{T}_{n}} , \\ y_{n}\,d\nu& \mbox{on } \mathcal{T}_{n}. \end{cases} $$

Definition 8

Let λ be any positive measure on \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) having finite total mass. Then the maximal function \(M(G;\lambda,\beta)\) is defined by

$$\mathfrak{M}(G;\lambda,\beta)=\sup_{ 0< \rho< \frac{r}{2}}\rho^{- \beta} \lambda\bigl(B(G,\rho)\bigr) $$

for any \(G=(r,\Xi)\in\mathbf{R}^{n}-\{O\}\), where \(\beta\geq0\). The exceptional set can be defined by

$$\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon; \lambda, \beta)=\bigl\{ G=(r,\Xi)\in\mathbf{R}^{n}- \{O\}; \mathfrak{M}(G;\lambda,\beta)r^{\beta}>\epsilon\bigr\} , $$

where ϵ is a sufficiently small positive number.

Remark 7

Let \(\beta>0\) and \(\lambda(\{P\})>0\) for any \(P\neq O\). Then:

  1. (I)

    \(\mathfrak{M}(G;\lambda,\beta)=+\infty\).

  2. (II)

    \(\{G\in\mathbf{R}^{n}-\{O\}; \lambda(\{P\})>0\}\subset \mathbb{EX}(\epsilon; \lambda, \beta)\).

The boundary behavior of classical Green potential in \(\mathcal{T} _{n}\) was proved by Huang in [7], Corollary and Remark 5.

Theorem A

Let g be a measurable function on \(\partial{\mathcal{T}_{n}}\) satisfying

$$ \int_{\partial{\mathcal{T}_{n}}}y_{n}\bigl(1+\vert y\vert \bigr)^{-n}\,dy< \infty. $$
(1.2)

Then

$$ \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma} \nu(x)=o\bigl(\vert x\vert \bigr) $$
(1.3)

for any \(x\in\mathcal{T}_{n}-\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\nu_{1},n-1)\), where \(\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\nu_{1},n-1)\) is a subset of \(\mathcal{T}_{n}\) and has a covering \(\{r_{k},R_{k}\}\) satisfying

$$ \sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\biggl( \frac{r_{k}}{R_{k}}\biggr)^{n-1}< \infty. $$
(1.4)

Results

Our first aim in this paper is also to consider boundary value problems for Green potential in a cone, which generalize Theorem A to the conical case. For similar results for Green-Sch potentials, we refer the reader to the paper by Li (see [1]).

The estimation of the Green potential at infinity is the following.

Theorem 1

If ν is a positive measure on \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) such that (1.1) holds for any \(G\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\). Then

$$\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma} \nu(G)=o\bigl(r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}\bigl\{ h_{\Sigma}( \Xi)\bigr\} ^{1-\alpha}\bigr) $$

for any \(G=(r,\Xi)\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)-\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon; \nu',n-\alpha)\) as \(r \rightarrow\infty\), where \(\mathbb{EX}( \epsilon;\nu',n-\alpha)\) is a subset of \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and has a covering \(\{r_{k},R_{k}\}\) satisfying

$$ \sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\biggl( \frac{r_{k}}{R_{k}}\biggr)^{n-\alpha}< \infty. $$
(2.1)

Corollary 1

Under the conditions of Theorem  1, \(\mathcal{GF} _{\Sigma} \nu(G)=o(r^{\iota_{\Sigma}})\) for any \(G=(r,\Xi)\in \beth_{n}(\Sigma)-\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\nu',n-1)\) as \(r \rightarrow \infty\), where \(\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\nu',n-1)\) is a subset of \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and has a covering \(\{r_{k},R_{k}\}\) satisfying (1.4).

Corollary 2

Under the conditions of Theorem  1, \(\mathcal{GF} _{\Sigma} \nu(G)=o(r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}(\Xi))\) for any \(G=(r,\Xi)\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)-\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\nu',n)\) as \(r \rightarrow\infty\), where \(\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\nu',n)\) is a subset of \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and has a covering \(\{r_{k},R_{k}\}\) satisfying

$$ \sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\biggl( \frac{r_{k}}{R_{k}}\biggr)^{n-1}< \infty. $$
(2.2)

Theorem B

see [8], Chapter 6, Theorem 6.2.1

Let \(0< w(G)\) be a superharmonic function in \(\mathcal{T}_{n}\). Then there exist a positive measure μ on \(\partial\mathcal{T}_{n}\) and a positive measure ν on \(\mathcal{T}_{n}\) such that \(w(G)\) can be uniquely decomposed as

$$ w(x)=cx_{n}+\mathcal{POI}_{\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}} \mu(x)+ \mathcal{GF} _{\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}} \nu(x), $$
(2.3)

where \(G\in\mathcal{T}_{n}\) and c is a nonnegative constant.

Theorem C

Let \(0< w(G)\) be a superharmonic function in \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\). Then there exist a positive measure μ on \(\daleth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and a positive measure ν on \(\beth_{n}( \Sigma)\) such that \(w(G)\) can be uniquely decomposed as

$$ w(G)=c_{5}(w)\mathcal{MK}(G,\infty)+c_{6}(w) \mathcal{MK}(G,O)+ \mathcal{POI}_{\Sigma} \mu(G)+\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma} \nu(G), $$
(2.4)

where \(G\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\), \(c_{5}(w)\) and \(c_{6}(w)\) are two constants dependent on w satisfying

$$c_{5}(w)=\inf_{G\in \beth_{n}(\Sigma)}\frac{w(G)}{\mathcal{MK}(G, \infty)}\quad \textit{and}\quad c_{6}(w)=\inf_{G\in \beth_{n}(\Sigma)}\frac{w(G)}{\mathcal{MK}(G,O)}. $$

As an application of Theorem 1 and Lemma 3 in Section 2, we prove the following result.

Theorem 2

Let \(0\leq\alpha< n\), ϵ be defined as in Theorem  1 and \(w(G)\) (\(\not\equiv+\infty\)) (\(G=(r,\Xi)\in\beth _{n}(\Sigma)\)) be defined by (2.4). Then

$$w(G)=c_{5}(w)\mathcal{MK}(G,\infty)+c_{6}(w) \mathcal{MK}(G,O)+o\bigl(r ^{\iota_{\Sigma}}\bigl\{ h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\bigr\} ^{1-\alpha}\bigr) $$

for any \(G\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)- \mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\xi,n-\alpha)\) as \(r \rightarrow\infty\), where \(\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\xi,n- \alpha)\) is a subset of \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and has a covering \(\{r_{k},R_{k}\}\) satisfying (2.1).

Corollary 3

Under the conditions of Theorem  2,

$$w(G)=c_{5}(w)\mathcal{MK}(G,\infty)+c_{6}(w) \mathcal{MK}(G,O)+o\bigl(r ^{\iota_{\Sigma}}\bigr) $$

for any \(G\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)- \mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\xi,n-1)\) as \(r \rightarrow\infty\), where \(\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\xi,n-1)\) is a subset of \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and has a covering \(\{r_{k},R_{k}\}\) satisfying (2.2).

Corollary 4

Under the conditions of Theorem  2,

$$w(G)=c_{5}(w)\mathcal{MK}(G,\infty)+c_{6}(w) \mathcal{MK}(G,O)+o\bigl(r ^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\bigr) $$

for any \(G\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)- \mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\xi,n)\) as \(r \rightarrow\infty\), where \(\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\xi,n)\) is a subset of \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and has a covering \(\{r_{k},R_{k}\}\) satisfying (1.4).

In \(\mathcal{T}_{n}\), we have

Corollary 5

Let \(w(x)\) (\(\not\equiv+\infty\)) (\(x=(X,x_{n}) \in\mathcal{T}_{n}\)) be defined by (2.3). Then

$$w(x)=cx_{n}+o\bigl(\vert x\vert \bigr) $$

for any \(x\in\mathcal{T}_{n}- \mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\varrho,n-1)\) as \(\vert x\vert \rightarrow\infty\), where \(\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\varrho,n-1)\) has a covering satisfying (2.2).

Corollary 6

Under the conditions of Corollary  5,

$$w(x)=cx_{n}+o(x_{n}) $$

for any \(x\in\mathcal{T}_{n}- \mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\varrho,n)\) as \(\vert x\vert \rightarrow\infty\), where \(\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon;\varrho,n)\) has a covering satisfying (1.4).

Lemmas

In order to prove our main results we need following lemmas.

Lemma 1

see [5], Lemma 2 and [9]

Let any \(G=(r,\Xi)\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and any \(H=(t,\Omega)\in\daleth_{n}(\Sigma)\), we have the following estimates:

$$ \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}(G,H)\leq M r^{-\kappa_{\Sigma }}t^{\iota_{ \Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}( \Xi)h_{\Sigma}(\Omega) $$
(3.1)

for \(0<\frac{t}{r}\leq\frac{4}{5}\),

$$ \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}(G,H)\leq M r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}t^{-\kappa_{ \Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}( \Xi)h_{\Sigma}(\Omega) $$
(3.2)

for \(0<\frac{r}{t}\leq\frac{4}{5}\) and

$$ \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}(G,H)\leq Mh_{\Sigma}(\Xi)t^{2-n}h_{\Sigma}( \Omega)+t^{-\kappa_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}( \Omega)\Pi_{\Sigma}(G,H), $$
(3.3)

for \(\frac{4r}{5}< t\leq\frac{5r}{4}\), where

$$\Pi_{\Sigma}(G,H)=\min\bigl\{ t^{\kappa_{\Sigma}} \vert G-H\vert ^{2-n}{h_{\Sigma}( \Omega)}^{-1}, Mrt^{\kappa_{\Sigma}+1} \vert G-H\vert ^{-n}h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\bigr\} . $$

Lemma 2

see [10], Lemma 2

If λ is positive measure on \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) having finite total mass, then exceptional set \(\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon; \lambda, \beta)\) has a covering \(\{r_{k},R_{k}\}\) (\(k=1,2,\ldots\)) satisfying

$$\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\biggl(\frac{r_{k}}{R_{k}} \biggr)^{\beta}< \infty. $$

The following result is due to Jiang et al. (see [10], Theorem 1), who are concerned with the boundary behaviors of Poisson integrals and their applications. For similar results in a half space, we refer the reader to the paper by Jiang and Huang (see [7]).

Lemma 3

Let \(\mathcal{POI}_{\Sigma}\mu(G) \not\equiv+\infty\) for any \(G=(r,\Xi)\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\), where μ is a positive measure on \(\daleth_{n}(\Sigma)\). Then

$$ \mathcal{POI}_{\Sigma} \mu(G)=o\bigl(r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}\bigl\{ h_{\Sigma}( \Xi)\bigr\} ^{1-\alpha}\bigr) $$
(3.4)

for any \(G\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma)-\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon; \mu',n- \alpha)\) as \(r \rightarrow\infty\), where \(\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon; \mu',n-\alpha)\) is a subset of \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma)\) and has a covering \(\{r_{k},R_{k}\}\) of satisfying (2.1).

Proof of Theorem 1

Let \(G=(r,\Xi)\) be any point in \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma; (L,+ \infty))-\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon; \nu', n-\alpha)\), where L is a sufficiently large number satisfying \(r \geq\frac{5L}{4}\).

Put

$$\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}\nu(G)=\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{1}(G)+ \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{2}(G)+\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{3}(G), $$

where

$$\begin{aligned}& \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{1}(G)= \int_{\beth_{n}(\Sigma;(0,\frac{4}{5}r])} \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}(G,H)\,d\nu(H), \\& \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{2}(G)= \int_{\beth_{n}(\Sigma;(\frac{4}{5}r,\frac{5}{4}r))} \mathcal{GF} _{\Sigma}(G,H)\,d\nu(H), \\& \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{3}(G)= \int_{\beth_{n}(\Sigma;[\frac{5}{4}r,\infty))} \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma }(G,H)\,d\nu(H). \end{aligned}$$

We have the following estimates:

$$\begin{aligned}& \begin{aligned}[b] \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{1}(G) &\leq Mr^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}( \Xi) \biggl(\frac{4}{5}r \biggr)^{-\varrho_{\Sigma}} \int_{\beth_{n}(\Sigma;(0,\frac{4}{5}r])}t^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{ \Sigma}(\Omega)\,d\nu(H) \\ &\leq M \epsilon r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}(\Xi), \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$
(4.1)
$$\begin{aligned}& \begin{aligned}[b] \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{3}(G) &\leq Mr^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}( \Xi) \int_{\beth_{n}(\Sigma;[\frac{5}{4}r,\infty))}t^{-\kappa_{ \Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}(\Omega)\,d\nu(H) \\ &\leq M \epsilon r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}(\Xi), \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$
(4.2)

from (3.1), (3.2), and [11], Lemma 1.

By (3.3), we have

$$\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{2}(G)\leq\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{21}(G)+ \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{22}(G), $$

where

$$\begin{aligned}& \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{21}(G)=Mh_{\Sigma}(\Xi) \int_{\beth_{n}(\Sigma;(\frac{4}{5}r,\frac{5}{4}r))}t^{2-n+ \kappa_{\Sigma}}\,d\nu'(H), \\& \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{22}(G)= \int_{\beth_{n}(\Sigma;(\frac{4}{5}r,\frac{5}{4}r))}\Pi_{\Sigma}(G,H)\,d\nu'(H). \end{aligned}$$

Then by [11], Lemma 1 we immediately get

$$\begin{aligned} \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{21}(G) \leq& \biggl( \frac{5}{4}\biggr)^{\iota_{\Sigma}}Mr ^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}(\Xi) \int_{\beth_{n}(\Sigma;(\frac{4}{5}r,\infty))}\,d\nu'(H) \\ \leq& M \epsilon r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}(\Xi). \end{aligned}$$
(4.3)

In order to give the growth properties of \(\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{22}(G)\). Take a sufficiently small positive number \(k_{2}\) independent of G such that

$$ \Gamma(G)=\biggl\{ (t,\Omega)\in\beth_{n}\biggl(\Sigma; \biggl(\frac{4}{5}r, \frac{5}{4}r\biggr)\biggr); \bigl\vert (1, \Omega)-(1,\Xi)\bigr\vert < k_{2}\biggr\} \subset B\biggl(G, \frac{r}{2}\biggr). $$
(4.4)

The set \(\beth_{n}(\Sigma;(\frac{4}{5}r,\frac{5}{4}r))\) can be split into two sets \(\Gamma(G)\) and \(\Gamma'(G)\), where \(\Gamma'(G)=\beth _{n}(\Sigma;(\frac{4}{5}r,\frac{5}{4}r))-\Gamma(G)\). Write

$$\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{22}(G)= \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{221}(G)+ \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{222}(G), $$

where

$$\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{221}(G)= \int_{\Gamma(G)}\Pi_{\Sigma}(G,H)\,d\nu'(H),\qquad \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{222}(G)= \int_{\Gamma'(G)} \Pi_{\Sigma}(G,H)\,d\nu'(H). $$

For any \(H\in\Gamma'(G)\) we have \(\vert G-H\vert \geq k_{2}'r\), where \(k_{2}'\) is a positive number. So [11], Lemma 1 gives

$$\begin{aligned} \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{222}(G) \leq& M \int_{\beth_{n}(\Sigma;(\frac{4}{5}r,\frac{5}{4}r))}rt^{\kappa_{ \Sigma}+1}h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\vert G-H \vert ^{-n}\,d\nu'(H) \\ \leq& Mr^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}(\Xi) \int_{\beth_{n}(\Sigma;(\frac{4}{5}r,\infty))}\,d\nu'(H) \\ \leq& M \epsilon r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}h_{\Sigma}(\Xi). \end{aligned}$$
(4.5)

To estimate \(\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{221}(G)\). Set

$$I_{l}(G)=\bigl\{ H\in\Gamma(G); 2^{l}\varrho(G)>\vert G-H \vert \geq2^{l-1}\varrho (G)\bigr\} , $$

where \(l=0,\pm1,\pm2,\ldots\) and \(\varrho(G)=\inf_{H\in\partial{ \beth_{n}(\Sigma)}}\vert G-H\vert \).

From Remark 7 it is easy to see that \(\nu'(\{P\})=0\) for any \(G=(r,\Xi)\notin\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon; \nu', n-\alpha)\). The function \(\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{221}(G)\) can be divided into \(\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{221}(G)=\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{2211}(G)+ \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{2212}(G)\), where

$$\begin{aligned}& \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{2211}(G)=\sum_{l=-\infty}^{-1} \int_{I_{l}(G)} \Pi_{\Sigma}(G,H)\,d\nu'(H), \\& \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{2212}(G)=\sum_{l=0}^{\infty} \int_{I_{l}(G)} \Pi_{\Sigma}(G,H)\,d\nu'(H). \end{aligned}$$

For any \(H=(t,\Omega)\in I_{l}(p)\), we have \(2^{-1}\varrho(G)\leq \varrho(H)\leq Mth_{\Sigma}(\Omega)\), because \(\varrho(H)+\vert G-H\vert \geq\varrho(G)\). Then by Remark 3

$$\begin{aligned} \int_{I_{l}(G)}\Pi_{\Sigma}(G,H)\,d\nu'(H) \leq& \int_{I_{l}(G)}\frac{t ^{\kappa_{\Sigma}}}{ \vert G-H\vert ^{n-2}h_{\Sigma}(\Omega)}\,d\nu'(H) \\ \leq& M2^{(2-\alpha)i}r^{2-\alpha+\kappa_{\Sigma}}\bigl\{ h_{\Sigma}( \Xi)\bigr\} ^{1-\alpha}\frac{\nu'(B(G,2^{l}\varrho(G)))}{\{2^{l}\varrho (G)\}^{n-\alpha}} \\ \leq& M r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}\bigl\{ h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\bigr\} ^{1-\alpha}r^{n- \alpha} \mathfrak{M}\bigl(G; \nu', n-\alpha\bigr) \end{aligned}$$

for \(l=-1,-2,\ldots\) .

Moreover, we have

$$ \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{2211}(G)\leq M \epsilon r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}\bigl\{ h _{\Sigma}(\Xi)\bigr\} ^{1-\alpha} $$
(4.6)

for any \(G=(r,\Xi)\notin\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon; \nu', n-\alpha)\).

Equation (4.4) shows that there exists an integer \(l(G)>0\) such that \(2^{l(G)}\varrho(G)\leq r<2^{l(G)+1}\varrho(G)\) and \(I_{l}(G)= \varnothing\) for \(l=l(G)+1,l(G)+2,\ldots\) . And Remark 3 shows that

$$\begin{aligned} \int_{I_{l}(G)}\Pi_{\Sigma}(G,H)\,d\nu'(H) \leq& Mrh_{\Sigma}( \Xi) \int_{I_{l}(G)}t^{\kappa_{\Sigma}+1}\vert G-H\vert ^{-n}\,d\nu'(H) \\ \leq& M2^{-i\alpha}r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}\bigl\{ h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\bigr\} ^{1- \alpha}r^{n-\alpha}\nu'\bigl(I_{l}(G)\bigr) \bigl\{ 2^{l}\varrho(G)\bigr\} ^{\alpha-n} \end{aligned}$$

for \(l=0,1,2,\ldots,l(G)\).

We have for any \(G=(r,\Xi)\notin\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon; \nu', n- \alpha)\)

$$\nu'\bigl(I_{l}(G)\bigr)\bigl\{ 2^{l} \varrho(G)\bigr\} ^{\alpha-n}\leq\nu'\bigl(B\bigl(G,2^{l} \varrho(G)\bigr)\bigr)\bigl\{ 2^{l}\varrho(G)\bigr\} ^{\alpha-n}\leq \mathfrak{M}\bigl(G; \nu', n-\alpha\bigr)< \epsilon r^{\alpha-n} $$

for \(l=0,1,2,\ldots,l(G)-1\) and

$$\nu'\bigl(I_{l}(G)\bigr)\bigl\{ 2^{l} \varrho(G)\bigr\} ^{\alpha-n}\leq\nu'\bigl(\Gamma(G)\bigr) \biggl( \frac{r}{2}\biggr)^{\alpha-n}< \epsilon r^{\alpha-n}. $$

So

$$ \mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}^{2212}(G)\leq M \epsilon r^{\iota_{\Sigma}}\bigl\{ h _{\Sigma}(\Xi)\bigr\} ^{1-\alpha}. $$
(4.7)

From (4.1), (4.2), (4.3), (4.5), (4.6), and (4.7) we obtain \(\mathcal{GF}_{\Sigma}\nu(G)=o(r^{ \iota_{\Sigma}}\{h_{\Sigma}(\Xi)\}^{1-\alpha})\) for any \(G=(r,\Xi)\in\beth_{n}(\Sigma; (L,+\infty))-\mathbb{EX}(\epsilon; \nu', n-\alpha)\) as \(r\rightarrow\infty\), where L is sufficiently large number. Finally, Lemma 2 gives the conclusion of Theorem 1.

Change history

References

  1. 1.

    Li, Z: Boundary behaviors of modified Green’s function with respect to the stationary Schrödinger operator and its applications. Bound. Value Probl. 2015, 242 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Yoshida, H: Nevanlinna norm of a subharmonic function on a cone or on a cylinder. Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (3) 54, 267-299 (1987)

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Brawn, FT: Mean values of strongly subharmonic functions on half-spaces. J. Lond. Math. Soc. (2) 27(2), 257-266 (1983)

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Courant, R, Hilbert, D: Methods of Mathematical Physics, vol. 1. Interscience Publishers, New York (1953)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Essén, M, Lewis, JL: The generalized Ahlfors-Heins theorems in certain d-dimensional cones. Math. Scand. 33, 111-129 (1973)

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Huang, J: Well-posedness and dynamics of the stochastic fractional magneto-hydrodynamic equations. Nonlinear Anal. 133, 102-133 (2016)

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Huang, J: The split generalized equilibrium problem involving inverse-strongly monotone mappings and its convergence algorithms. Ann. Appl. Math. 31(4), 383-392 (2015)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Armitage, D, Gardiner, S: Classical Potential Theory. Springer, Berlin (2001)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Yoshida, H: On subharmonic functions dominated by certain functions. Isr. J. Math. 54(3), 366-380 (1986)

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Jiang, Z, Hou, L, Peixoto-de-Büyükkurt, C: Growth property at infinity of harmonic functions. J. Inequal. Appl. 2015, 401 (2015)

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Miyamoto, I, Yoshida, H: Two criteria of Wiener type for minimally thin sets and rarefied sets in a cone. J. Math. Soc. Jpn. 54, 487-512 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the referee for invaluable comments and insightful suggestions.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hong Wang.

Additional information

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

HW participated in the design and theoretical analysis of the study, drafted the manuscript. JM conceived the study, and participated in its design and coordination. KL participated in the design and the revision of the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lai, K., Mu, J. & Wang, H. RETRACTED ARTICLE: New applications of Schrödingerean Green potential to boundary behaviors of superharmonic functions. Bound Value Probl 2017, 21 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13661-017-0746-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • boundary value problem
  • Green potential
  • asymptotic behavior