 Research
 Open Access
 Published:
Study of a class of arbitrary order differential equations by a coincidence degree method
Boundary Value Problems volume 2017, Article number: 111 (2017)
Abstract
In this manuscript, we investigate some appropriate conditions which ensure the existence of at least one solution to a class of fractional order differential equations (FDEs) provided by
The nonlinear function \(\theta :\mathfrak{J}\times \mathbf{R} \rightarrow \mathbf{R}\) is continuous. Further, \(\delta \in (0, 1)\) and \(\phi \in C(\mathfrak{J},\mathbf{R})\) is a nonlocal function. We establish some adequate conditions for the existence of at least one solution to the considered problem by using Grönwall’s inequality and a priori estimate tools called the topological degree method. We provide two examples to verify the obtained results.
Introduction
The applications of noninteger order differential equations are increasing day by day in various areas of research. These applications can be traced out in many disciplines of science including technology and engineering. To see the recent applications of the mentioned area in various fields like physics, mechanics, chemical science, biological dynamics, material engineering, theory of control, signal and image propagation, communication and transform, economical problems and optimization theory, etc.; the reader is referred to [1–5]. Noninteger order differential equations provide a strong tool for the description of memory and hereditary properties of various materials and processes; see [6]. One of the key reasons of taking interest in fractional differential equations by the researchers is the presence of greater degree of freedom of fractional differential operator. In fact the fractional derivative is a global operator instead of classical derivative which is local in nature; see [7]. In the last few decades, various aspects of fractional differential equations have been investigated like existence theory, stability and numerical analysis, etc. One of the attractive areas of research is the existence theory of solutions for FDEs. In the last few decades, the aforesaid area has been extensively investigated by using various techniques of classical analysis, for further explanations, we refer the reader to [8–14]. It is well known that the standard RiemannLiouville fractional derivative fails to provide the required physical interpretation for boundary value problems (BVPs) and initial value problems (IVPs) in most of the cases. However, these requirements of interpreting the initial and boundary conditions can better be fulfilled by the use of Caputo noninteger order derivatives. Existence theory of solutions or positive solutions to multipoints boundary value problems using different types of fixed point theorems like as Banach theorem of contraction type, Schaefer and LeraySchauder theorem of fixed point is studied in detail [15–21]. Moreover, the existence of solutions to FDEs using coincidence degree theory for a contraction operator is studied in [22–28]. Recently the existence of a center stable manifold for planar fractional damped equations has been investigated. For the required solution, the authors in [29] constructed a suitable LyapunovPerron operator by giving the asymptotic behavior of the MittagLeffler function. Then they obtained an interesting center stable manifold result to prove center stable manifold theorem for planar fractional damped equations involving two Caputo fractional derivatives. In a similar manner, the authors of [30], studied finite time stability and existence theory of delay type differential equations of fractional order by using classical analysis. Wang et al. [26] investigated the existence theory and proved some conditions for uniqueness and derived some data dependency results of solutions using topological degree technique by considering some classes of nonlocal Cauchy problems including BVPs and impulsive Cauchy problems (ICPs) to FDEs. Chen et al. [27], obtained the existence results by coincidence degree theory to the following BVP involving a pLaplacian operator:
where \({}^{C}\mathbf{D}_{0+}^{q}\) and \({}^{C}\mathbf{D}_{0+}^{p}\) represent noninteger order derivatives in the Caputo sense, \(p,q\in (0, 1]\), \(p+q\in (1, 2]\). Tang et al. [28] applied the aforesaid degree theory and established results for the following two point BVP of noninteger order pLaplace DEs:
where \({}^{C}\mathbf{D}_{0+}^{q}\) and \({}^{C}\mathbf{D}_{0+}^{p}\) are noninteger order derivatives of Caputo type, \(p, q\in (0, 1]\), \(p+q\in (1, 2]\). The mentioned theory of degree type has been studied recently in many papers; see [31–34].
The current manuscript is inspired from the aforesaid work. Our aim is to investigate the existence and uniqueness of at least one solution by applying the coincidence degree theory for a condensing mapping to the threepoints BVP supplied as
The manuscript is organize as explained below.
Section 2 is concerned with some background material and lemmas required for the main results. In Section 3, the problem under consideration of FDEs is transformed to its equivalent Fredholm integral equation. Then the required theory devoted to the aims of this paper is developed via using coincidence degree of condensing maps and using the standard singular Grönwall inequality. At the end, an example is provided for justification of the established results.
Background material
This section contains basics materials and preliminaries related to of noninteger order calculus and degree theory of topological type. For further details, we refer to [2–5, 35–38].
The space consisting of all continuous functions \(\mathfrak{J}\rightarrow \mathbf{R}\) is a Banach space endowed with a norm \(\lVert z \rVert_{\mathbf{Z}}=\sup \{\lvert z(t)\rvert :t\in \mathfrak{J} \}\). For simplicity, we denote the defined space by \(\mathbf{Z}=C(J, \mathbf{R})\).
Definition 2.1
Let \(z \in C(\mathbf{R}^{+}, \mathbf{R})\) be a function. Then the noninteger order integral of order \(q\in \mathbf{R_{+}}\) of the function \(z(t)\) is defined as
provided that integral on the right is pointwise defined on \((0, \infty )\).
Definition 2.2
The Caputo type noninteger order derivative of a function \(z: \mathbf{R}^{+}\rightarrow \mathbf{R}\) is defined by
where \(m=[q]+1\) and \([q]\) represents the integer part of q.
For further details on fractional derivatives and integrals; see [2–5].
Lemma 2.1
[35]
The unique solution of FDE of order \(q>0\)
is given as
Theorem 2.3
[35]
The given FDE
has a solution given by
for arbitrary \(e_{i}\in \mathbf{R}\), \(i=0,1,2,\dots ,m1\).
Next, we present some important definitions, propositions and theorems from [36]. For the Banach space Z, with \(\mathbf{C} \in P(\mathbf{Z})\) represents the collection of all bounded sets.
Definition 2.4
The measure with noncompactness of Kuratowski type \(\beta : \mathbf{C}\rightarrow \mathbf{R}_{+}\) as given by
where \(\mathbf{B}\in \mathbf{C}\) inserts a finite cover with a sets of diameter ≤d.
Proposition 2.1
The measure of Kuratowski type denoted by β satisfies the following properties:

(i)
the set B is relatively compact if and only if \(\mathbf{B}\in \mathbf{C}\) has Kuratowski measure zero;

(ii)
β is a seminorm, because it satisfies \(\beta ( \lambda \mathbf{B})=\lvert \lambda \rvert \beta (\mathbf{B})\), \(\lambda \in \mathbf{R}\) and \(\beta (\mathbf{B}_{1}+\mathbf{B}_{2})\leq \beta (\mathbf{B}_{1})+\beta (\mathbf{B}_{2})\);

(iii)
\(\beta (\mathbf{B}_{1})\leq \beta (\mathbf{B}_{2})\) for \(\mathbf{B}_{1}\subset \mathbf{B}_{2}\) and \(\beta (\mathbf{B}_{1} \cup \mathbf{B}_{2})=\sup \{\beta (\mathbf{B}_{1}),\beta (\mathbf{B} _{2})\}\);

(iv)
\(\beta (\operatorname{conv}\mathbf{B})=\beta (\mathbf{B})\);

(v)
\(\beta (\bar{\mathbf{B}})=\beta (\mathbf{B})\).
Definition 2.5
Assume that the function \(\mathcal{F}:\Omega \rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) is a continuous and bounded mapping for \(\Omega \subset \mathbf{Z}\). Then \(\mathcal{F}\) is βLipschitz if there exists \(\mathcal{K} \geq 0\) such that
Also if \(\mathcal{K}<1\), then \(\mathcal{F}\) is said to be a strict βcontraction.
Definition 2.6
The function \(\mathcal{F}\) is βcondensing if
In other words, \(\beta (\mathcal{F}(\mathbf{B}))\geq \beta ( \mathbf{B})\) implies \(\beta (\mathbf{B})=0\).
Here, we represent the family of all strict βcontraction mappings \(\mathcal{F}:\Omega \rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) by \(\Theta \mathbf{C}_{\beta }(\Omega )\). Further, denoting the family of all βcondensing mappings \(\mathcal{F}:\Omega \rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) by \(\mathbf{C}_{\beta }(\Omega )\).
Remark 1
Each \(\mathcal{F}\in \mathbf{C}_{\beta }(\Omega )\) is βLipschitz with constant \(\mathcal{K}=1\), where \(\Theta \mathbf{C}_{\beta }( \Omega )\subset \mathbf{C}_{\beta }(\Omega )\).
Moreover, if there exists \(\mathcal{K}>0\), then \(\mathcal{F}:\Omega \rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) is said to be Lipschitz if and only if
Also \(\mathcal{F}\) is strict contraction if and only if \(\mathcal{K}<1\).
The provided propositions are necessarily required for our analysis throughout this paper.
Proposition 2.2
Consider \(\mathcal{F},\mathcal{G}:\Omega \rightarrow \mathbf{Z} \) to be βLipschitz operators and there exist two constants \(\mathcal{K}\) and \(\mathcal{K}^{\prime}\), respectively, then their sum \(\mathcal{F}+\mathcal{G}:\Omega \rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) is also βLipschitz with constant \(\hat{\mathcal{K}}=\mathcal{K}+ \mathcal{K}^{\prime}\).
Proposition 2.3
The operator \(\mathcal{F}\) is βLipschitz with constant \(\mathcal{K}=0\). Then the same operator \(\mathcal{F}:\Omega \rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) is compact.
Proposition 2.4
If an operator \(\mathcal{F}:\Omega \rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) is Lipschitz with constant \(\mathcal{K}\). Then the same operator \(\mathcal{F}\) will also be βLipschitz with the same constant \(\mathcal{K}\).
Theorem 2.7
We recall some basic properties of proposed degree theory from Isaia [37].
Let for the family of admissible triplets given by
there exists a function \(\deg :\digamma \rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) of one degree which has the following properties.

(D1)
Normalization: \(\deg (I,\Omega ,z)=1\) at each \(z\in \Omega \);

(D2)
additivity on domain: For each pair of disjoint open sets \(\Omega_{1}, \Omega_{2}\subset \Omega \) and each \(z\notin (I \mathcal{F})(\bar{(\Omega )}\setminus (\Omega_{1} \cup \Omega_{2}))\), we have
$$\deg (\mathfrak{I}\mathcal{F},\Omega ,z)=\deg (\mathcal{I} \mathcal{F}\Omega , \Omega_{1},z)+\deg (\mathcal{I}\mathcal{F},\Omega _{2},z); $$ 
(D3)
invariance property under homoptopy: \(\deg (\mathcal{I}H(t,z), \Omega , z)\) is independent of \(t\in \mathfrak{J}\) for each continuous and bounded mapping \(H:\mathfrak{J}\times \bar{\Omega }\rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) which satisfies
$$\beta \bigl(H(\mathfrak{J}\times \mathbf{B})\bigr)< \beta (\mathbf{B}),\quad \textit{for all } \mathbf{B}\subset \bar{\Omega } \textit{ with } \beta (\mathbf{B})>0 $$and every continuous function \(z:\mathfrak{J}\rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) which satisfies
$$z\neq zH(t,z), \quad \textit{for all } t\in \mathfrak{J}, \textit{for every } z\in \partial \Omega ; $$ 
(D4)
existence: \(\deg (\mathcal{I}\mathcal{F},\Omega ,z) \neq 0\) yields
$$z\in (\mathcal{I}\mathcal{F}) (\Omega ); $$ 
(D5)
excision: \(\deg (\mathcal{I}\mathcal{F},\Omega ,z)= \deg (\mathcal{I}\mathcal{F},\Omega_{1},z)\) for each open set \(\Omega_{1} \subset \Omega \) and for all \(z\notin (\mathcal{I} \mathcal{F})(\bar{\Omega } \setminus \Omega_{1})\).
Theorem 2.8
Assume that \(\mathcal{F}:\mathbf{Z}\rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) is a βcondensing operator and
is a bounded set and there exists a real number \(r>0\) with \(\Theta \subset \mathbf{B}_{r}(0)\). Then
Therefore, the operator \(\mathcal{F}\) has at least one fixed point and the set of fixed points of \(\mathcal{F}\) lies in \(\mathbf{B}_{r}(0)\).
Theorem 2.9
[38]
Let \(z\in \mathbf{Z}\) satisfies the following inequality:
Here \(0<\lambda <1\frac{1}{r}\) for some \(r\in (1, \frac{1}{1q})\) and \(\hat{a}, \hat{b}, \hat{c}\in (0, \infty )\) are constants. Then we have
Existence of at least one solution to BVP (1)
The purpose of this section is concerning to establish the required theory for existence of at least one solutions to the BVP (1).
Lemma 3.1
For \(\omega \in L^{1}(\mathfrak{J}, \mathbf{R})\), the solution of the linear BVP of FDEs
is given as
where \(\mathcal{H}(t,s)\) is the Green’s function given by
Proof
Consider equation (3) with the associated given boundary conditions; applying \(\mathbf{I}^{q}\) on \({}^{C}\mathbf{D}^{q} z(t)= \omega (t)\) and thanks to Theorem 2.3, we have
for some \(e_{0},e_{1}\in \mathbf{R}\). From the nonlocal condition \(z(t)_{t=0}=\phi (z)\) implies that \(e_{0}=\phi (z)\) and \(z(1)= \delta {}^{C}\mathbf{D}^{p} u(\eta )\) yields \(e_{1}=d [ \mathbf{I}^{q} \omega (1)\delta \mathbf{I}^{qp}\omega (\eta )\phi (z) ] \), where \(d=\frac{\Gamma (2p)}{\Gamma (2p)\delta \eta^{1p}}>1\). It implies that
Thus we get a solution z in the form
where the kernel \(\mathcal{H}(t,\tau )\) is the Green’s function and is given as (4). □
Lemma 3.2
A function \(z\in \mathbf{Z}\) will be the solution of the fractional integral equation (6) if and only if z is a solution of (1).
Proof
The proof is obvious. □
To derive formally the required results as regards the data dependence and existence of at least one of solutions to the proposed BVP (1), we state the following hypotheses:
 (\(A_{1}\)):

For arbitrary \(u,v\in \mathbf{Z}\) and if there exists a constant \(\mathcal{K}_{\phi } \in [0,1)\), then one has
$$\bigl\lvert \phi (z)\phi (\bar{z})\bigr\rvert \leq \mathcal{K}_{\phi } \lVert z \bar{z} \rVert_{\mathbf{Z}}; $$  (\(A_{2}\)):

for constants \(\mathcal{C}_{\phi }\), \(q_{1} \in [0,1)\) and \(\mathcal{M}_{\phi }>0\), we have the following growth condition:
$$\bigl\lvert \phi (z)\bigr\rvert \leq \mathcal{C}_{\phi } \lVert z \rVert_{\mathbf{Z}} ^{q_{1}}+\mathcal{M}_{\phi },\quad \mbox{for each } z\in \mathbf{Z}; $$  (\(A_{3}\)):

in the same fashion, for constants \(\mathcal{C}_{ \theta }\), \(q_{2} \in [0,1)\) and \(\mathcal{M}_{\theta }>0\), we have the following growth condition:
$$\bigl\lvert \theta (t,z(t))\bigr\rvert \leq \mathcal{C}_{\theta } \lVert z \rVert_{\mathbf{Z}}^{q_{2}}+\mathcal{M}_{\theta }. $$
as follows:
and \(\mathcal{G}:\mathbf{Z}\rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) is defined by
Obviously, the operator T is well defined because the function θ is continuous. So, we can write (6) as an operator equation given by
Here by the existence of a solution to equation (1), we mean the existence of a fixed point for operator T as defined afore and satisfying equation (7).
Lemma 3.3
The operator \(\mathcal{F}: \mathbf{Z}\rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) is Lipschitz and consequently βLipschitz with constant \(\mathcal{K}_{\mathcal{F}}<1\). Moreover, the operator \(\mathcal{F}\) satisfies the following growth condition:
Proof
For \(\mathcal{F}\) to be Lipschitz, we consider \(\lvert \mathcal{F}z(t) \mathcal{F}\bar{z}(t) \rvert \), and apply assumptions (\(A_{1}\)) and (\(A_{2}\)), we have
Hence, we get
Thanks to proposition 2.4, \(\mathcal{F}\) is also βLipschitz with the same coefficient \(K_{\mathcal{F}}\).
To derive the growth condition, we consider \((\mathcal{F}z)(t)=(1td) \phi (z)\), and applying assumption (\(A_{2}\)), we get
where \(\mathcal{Q}=\vert d\vert C_{\phi }\). □
Lemma 3.4
The operator \(\mathcal{G}:\mathbf{Z}\rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) is continuous. Moreover, it also satisfies the growth condition as
for every \(z\in \mathbf{Z}\).
Proof
Let \(\{z_{m} \}\) be a sequence in the bounded set \(\bar{\mathbf{B}}= \{\lVert z\rVert_{\mathbf{Z}} \leq \kappa : z \in \mathbf{Z}\}\) such that \(z_{m} \rightarrow z\) as \(m\rightarrow \infty \) in \(\bar{ \mathbf{B}}\). We need to show that \(\lVert \mathcal{G}z_{m}  \mathcal{G}z \rVert_{\mathbf{Z}}\rightarrow 0\) as \(m\rightarrow \infty \). Since θ is continuous and \(z_{m}\rightarrow z\), therefore, \(\theta (\tau , z_{m}(\tau ))\rightarrow \theta (\tau , z( \tau ))\) as \(m\rightarrow 0\). Now consider
In view of assumption (\(A_{3}\)) and thanks to the Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem, one has
which shows that \(\mathcal{G}\) is continuous. To obtain the growth condition for the nonlinear operator \(\mathcal{G}\), consider
Applying assumption (\(A_{3}\)), we obtain the condition (9). □
Lemma 3.5
The operator \(\mathcal{G}:\mathbf{Z}\rightarrow \mathbf{Z}\) is compact. Consequently, \(\mathcal{G}\) is βLipschitz with zero constant.
Proof
To prove the required result, we take a bounded set \(\mathbf{D} \subset \bar{B}\subseteq \mathbf{Z}\). Let \(\{z_{m}\}\) be a sequence on \(\mathbf{D}\subset \bar{\mathbf{B}}\), then from (9) for every \(z_{m}\in \mathbf{D}\), we have
which implies that \(\mathcal{G}(\mathbf{D})\) is bounded in Z. Next, we will show that \(\{\mathcal{G}z_{m}\}\) is equicontinuous. For this purpose, let \(t_{1}< t_{2} \in (0,1)\), and using these relations \(\delta \eta^{qp}<1\), \(\frac{1}{\Gamma (q+1)}<\frac{1}{ \Gamma (qp+1)}\), we have
which on simplification takes the form
The right hand side of the inequality (10) goes to zero as \(t_{2}\rightarrow t_{1}\). Thus, \(\{\mathcal{G}z_{m}\}\) is equicontinuous and also \(\mathcal{G}(\mathbf{D})\) is relatively compact in Z by using the ArzeláAscoli theorem. Furthermore, in view of Proposition 2.3, the nonlinear operator \(\mathcal{G}\) is βLipschitz with constant zero. □
From now on, we will prove our main results.
Theorem 3.1
Under the hypotheses (\(A_{1}\))(\(A_{3}\)) equation (1) has at least one solution \(u\in \mathbf{Z}\). Also, the set of solutions for (1) is bounded in Z.
Proof
Thank to Proposition 2.2, the operator T is a strict βcontraction with constant \(\mathcal{K}_{\phi }\). Consider the set
We need to show that \(\mathbf{S}_{0}\subset \mathbf{Z}\) is bounded. For this purpose, consider
which implies using \(\lambda <1\) that
Hence, (11) and \(q_{1}, q_{2}\in (0, 1)\) shows that \(\mathbf{S}_{0}\) is bounded in Z. If it is not bounded then assume that \(\Vert z\Vert _{\mathbf{Z}}=\rho \) and consider that \(\rho \rightarrow \infty \). Then from (11), we have
where due to assumption
This is impossible, so we take \(\mathbf{S}_{0}\) to be bounded.
Therefore, we conclude that the operator T has at least one fixed point and the set of fixed points is bounded in Z. □
We make the following assumption for discussion of data dependence of solutions:
 (\(A_{4}\)):

There exist constants \(\mathcal{L}_{\theta }>0\), \(\lambda \in [0,1\frac{1}{r}]\) for some \(r\in (0,1\frac{1}{1q})\) such that
$$\bigl\lvert \theta (t,z)\theta (t,\bar{z}) \bigr\rvert \leq \mathcal{L}_{ \theta }\lvert z\bar{z} \rvert^{\lambda }, \quad \mbox{for each } t\in \mathfrak{J}, \mbox{and for all } z, \bar{z} \in \mathbf{R}. $$
Theorem 3.2
Assuming that (\(A_{1}\))(\(A_{6}\)) hold, let \(z(t) \bar{z}(t)\) be the solutions of (FDE) (1) with associated boundary conditions. Then there exists a constant \(\mathcal{M}^{\ast }>0\) such that
Proof
Consider \(\lvert z(t)\bar{z}(t) \rvert \), and thanks to (\(A_{1}\)), (\(A_{3}\)), and (\(A_{4}\)), we get
Upon further simplification and using (2), we get
Hence using (2) and Theorem 2.9, we obtain
where \(\mathcal{M}^{\ast }= e^{\mathcal{M}}\) and
□
Now, rewrite assumption (\(A_{4}\)) as follows.
 (\(A_{5}\)):

For a \(\mathcal{L}_{\theta }>0\), the following relation holds:
$$\bigl\lvert \theta (t,z)\theta (t,\bar{z}) \bigr\rvert \leq \mathcal{L}_{ \theta }\lvert z\bar{z }\rvert ,\quad \mbox{for each } t\in \mathfrak{J}, \mbox{and for each } z, \bar{z} \in \mathbf{R}. $$
Theorem 3.3
Assume that the hypotheses (\(A_{1}\))(\(A_{5}\)) hold, then FDE (1) has a unique solution \(z\in \mathbf{Z}\) if \(\frac{ \mathcal{M}^{\ast }}{1\mathcal{K}_{\phi }}<1\).
Proof
As we investigated in Theorem 3.1 \(z(t)\in \mathbf{Z}\) is a solution of (1). Let \(\overline{z}(t)\) be another solution of (1). Then, repeating the same procedure as in Theorem 3.2 and using assumptions (\(A_{1}\)), (\(A_{3}\)) and (\(A_{5}\)), we obtain
using the inequality in Theorem 2.9, we get
which produces the uniqueness of z. □
Illustrative example
Example 1
Take the following FDE subject to the multipoints boundary conditions:
Here, we take \(q=\frac{2}{3}\) and \(\delta =\eta =\frac{1}{2}\), \(\mathcal{K}_{\phi }=\frac{1}{20}\), \(\eta_{j}=\frac{1}{2^{j}}\), \(j=1,2,3,4\). \(r=2\in (1,3)\), \(\lambda =\frac{1}{2}\in [0, 1]\), \(\mathcal{L}_{ \theta }=\mathcal{C}_{\theta }=\frac{1}{10}\), \(\mathcal{C}_{\phi }= \frac{1}{20}\), \(p=\frac{1}{2}\), \(\mathcal{M}_{\phi }=\mathcal{M}_{ \theta }=0\).
By simple computation, \(d=1.5469\), \(\mathcal{Q}=d\mathcal{C}_{\phi }=1.5469 \times \frac{1}{20}=0.07734\). For the considered problem (13) all the data dependence results (A1)(A5) are satisfied. It is also obvious that the solution z
is bounded. Thus due to Theorem 3.1 there exists at least one solution for (13) which is bounded. Along the same line, one can derive the assumptions of Theorem 3.2 and 3.3.
Example 2
Consider the following boundary value problem of FDEs:
From the given problem (14), we see that \(q=\frac{5}{3}\) and we take \(\delta =\eta =\frac{1}{3}\), \(\mathcal{K}_{\phi }=\frac{1}{10}\). \(r=2\in (1,3)\), \(\lambda =\frac{1}{2}\in [0, 1]\), \(\mathcal{L}_{ \theta }=\mathcal{C}_{\theta }=\frac{1}{41}\), \(\mathcal{C}_{\phi }= \frac{1}{10}\), \(p=\frac{1}{2}\), \(\mathcal{M}_{\phi }=\mathcal{M}_{ \theta }=0\).
Upon computation, we get \(d=1.27739\), \(\mathcal{Q}=d\mathcal{C}_{ \phi }=0.127739\). Thus for the given boundary value problem (14) of FDEs, all the data dependence results (\(A_{1}\))(\(A_{5}\)) hold.
Further, it is easy to show by using Theorem 3.1 that there exists at least one solution for (14) which is bounded. Also, one can easily derive the assumptions of Theorems 3.2 and 3.3.
Concluding remarks
In this paper, we have successfully applied an a priori estimate method known as topological degree method rather than Schauder and Brouwer degree theory. Highly interesting results for the existence of at least one solution have been derived. In the future, we can extend the concerned theory to highly applicable nonlinear problems of applied analysis to investigate them for solutions.
References
 1.
Kilbas, AA, Marichev, OI, Samko, SG: Fractional Integrals and Derivatives (Theory and Applications). Gordon & Breach, Switzerland (1993)
 2.
Miller, KS, Ross, B: An Introduction to the Fractional Calculus and Fractional Differential Equations. Wiley, New York (1993)
 3.
Podlubny, I: Fractional Differential Equations, Mathematics in Science and Engineering. Academic Press, New York (1999)
 4.
Hilfer, R: Applications of Fractional Calculus in Physics. World Scientific, Singapore (2000)
 5.
Kilbas, AA, Srivastava, HM, Trujillo, JJ: Theory and Applications of Fractional Differential Equations. NorthHolland Athematics Studies, vol. 204. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2006)
 6.
Wang, JR, Zhou, Y, Fečkan, M: On recent developments in the theory of boundary value problems for impulsive fractional differential equations. Comput. Math. Appl. 64, 30083020 (2012)
 7.
Haq, F, Shah, K, Khan, A, Shahzad, M, Rahman, G: Numerical solution of fractional order epidemic model of a vector born disease by Laplace Adomian decomposition method. Punjab Univ. J. Math. 49(2), 1322 (2017)
 8.
Benchohra, M, Graef, JR, Hamani, S: Existence results for boundary value problems with nonlinear fractional differential equations. Appl. Anal. 87, 851863 (2008)
 9.
Agarwal, RP, Belmekki, M, Benchohra, M: A survey on semilinear differential equations and inclusions involving RiemannLiouville fractional derivative. Adv. Differ. Equ. 2009, 981728 (2009)
 10.
Ahmad, B, Nieto, JJ: Existence results for a coupled system of nonlinear fractional differential equations with threepoint boundary conditions. Comput. Math. Appl. 58, 18381843 (2009)
 11.
Agarwal, RP, Benchohra, M, Hamani, S: A survey on existence results for boundary value problems of nonlinear fractional differential equations and inclusions. Acta Appl. Math. 109, 9731033 (2010)
 12.
Ahmad, B, Nieto, JJ: Existence of solutions for antiperiodic boundary value problems involving fractional differential equations via LeraySchauder degree theory. Topol. Methods Nonlinear Anal. 35, 295304 (2010)
 13.
Li, CF, Luo, XN, Zhou, Y: Existence of positive solutions of the boundary value problem for nonlinear fractional differential equations. Comput. Appl. Math. 59, 13631375 (2010)
 14.
Balachandran, K, Kiruthika, S, Trujillo, JJ: Existence results for fractional impulsive integrodifferential equations in Banach spaces. Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 16, 19701977 (2011)
 15.
ElShahed, M, Nieto, JJ: Nontrivial solutions for a nonlinear multipoint boundary value problem of fractional order. Comput. Math. Appl. 59(11), 34383443 (2010)
 16.
Rehman, M, Khan, RA: Existence and uniqueness of solutions for multipoint boundary value problems for fractional differential equations. Appl. Math. Lett. 23(9), 10381044 (2010)
 17.
Zhong, W, Lin, W: Nonlocal and multiplepoint boundary value problem for fractional differential equations. Comput. Math. Appl. 59(3), 13451351 (2010)
 18.
ElShahed, M, Shammakh, WM: Existence of positive solutions for mpoint boundary value problem for nonlinear fractional differential equation. Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2011, 986575 (2011)
 19.
Cui, Z, Yu, P, Mao, Z: Existence of solutions for nonlocal boundary value problems of nonlinear fractional differential equations. Adv. Dyn. Syst. Appl. 7(1), 771781 (2012)
 20.
Khan, RA: Threepoint boundary value problems for higher order nonlinear fractional differential equations. J. Appl. Math. Inform. 31(12), 221228 (2013)
 21.
ElSayed, AMA, BinTaher, EO: Positive solutions for a nonlocal multipoint boundaryvalue problem of fractional and second order. Electron. J. Differ. Equ. 2013, 64 (2013)
 22.
Yang, A, Ge, W: Positive solutions of multipoint boundary value problems of nonlinear fractional differential equation at resonance. J. Korea Soc. Math. Educ. Ser. B Pure Appl. Math. 16, 181193 (2009)
 23.
Bai, ZB: On positive solutions of a nonlocal fractional boundary value problem. Nonlinear Anal. 72, 916924 (2010)
 24.
Wang, G, Liu, W, Zhu, S, Zheng, T: Existence results for a coupled system of nonlinear fractional 2mpoint boundary value problems at resonance. Adv. Differ. Equ. 2011, 44 (2011).
 25.
Han, X, Wang, T: The existence of solutions for a nonlinear fractional multipoint boundary value problem at resonance. Int. J. Differ. Equ. 2011, 401803 (2011)
 26.
Wang, J, Zhou, Y, Wei, W: Study in fractional differential equations by means of topological degree methods. Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 33(2), 216238 (2012)
 27.
Chen, T, Liu, W, Hu, Z: A boundary value problem for fractional differential equation with pLaplacian operator at resonance. Nonlinear Anal. 75, 32103217 (2012)
 28.
Tang, X, Yan, C, Liu, Q: Existence of solutions of twopoint boundary value problems for fractional pLaplace differential equations at resonance. J. Appl. Math. Comput. 41, 119131 (2013)
 29.
Wang, JR, Fečkan, M, Zhou, Y: Center stable manifold for planar fractional damped equations. Appl. Math. Comput. 296, 257269 (2017)
 30.
Li, M, Wang, JR: Finite time stability of fractional delay differential equations. Appl. Math. Lett. 64, 170176 (2017)
 31.
Shah, K, Khan, RA: Existence and uniqueness results to a coupled system of fractional order boundary value problems by topological degree theory. Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 37(7), 887899 (2016)
 32.
Khan, RA, Shah, K: Existence and uniqueness of solutions to fractional order multipoint boundary value problems. Commun. Appl. Anal. 19, 515526 (2015)
 33.
Shah, K, Ali, A, Khan, RA: Degree theory and existence of positive solutions to coupled systems of multipoint boundary value problems. Bound. Value Probl. 2016, 43 (2016)
 34.
Ali, A, Samet, B, Shah, K, Khan, RA: Existence and stability of solution to a toppled systems of differential equations of noninteger order. Bound. Value Probl. 2017, 16 (2017).
 35.
Lakshmikantham, V, Leela, S, Vasundhara, J: Theory of Fractional Dynamic Systems. Cambridge Academic Publishers, Cambridge (2009)
 36.
Deimling, K: Nonlinear Functional Analysis. Springer, New York (1985)
 37.
Isaia, F: On a nonlinear integral equation without compactness. Acta Math. 75, 233240 (2006)
 38.
Lv, L, Wang, J, Wei, W: Existence and uniqueness results for fractional differential equations with boundary value conditions. Opusc. Math. 31, 629643 (2011)
Acknowledgements
We are thankful to the reviewers for their useful corrections and suggestions which improved the quality of this paper. This research work has been supported financially by Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan and Cankaya University, Turkey.
Author information
Additional information
Competing interests
We declare that we have no competing interest corresponding to this paper.
Authors’ contributions
All authors equally contributed to this paper and approved the last version.
Publisher’s Note
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
About this article
Cite this article
Ali, N., Shah, K., Baleanu, D. et al. Study of a class of arbitrary order differential equations by a coincidence degree method. Bound Value Probl 2017, 111 (2017) doi:10.1186/s1366101708416
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
MSC
 34A08
 35R11
Keywords
 fractional order differential equations
 Caputo derivative
 condensing operator
 Grönwall’s inequality
 topological degree method