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# New existence results for coupled delayed differential systems with multi-parameters

*Boundary Value Problems*
**volumeÂ 2020**, ArticleÂ number:Â 2 (2020)

## Abstract

In this paper, several novel existence and multiplicity results are established for a coupled functional differential system with multi-parameters. The discussion is based upon fixed point theory, and our main findings enrich and complement those available in the literature.

## 1 Introduction

This paper is mainly concerned with the existence and multiplicity of positive periodic solutions of the nonlinear coupled differential systems

where we always assume that \(a_{i}, b_{i}, \tau _{i}, \zeta _{i}\in C( \mathbb{R},\mathbb{R})\) are *Ï‰*-periodic functions, \(g_{i}:[0, \infty )\to [0,\infty )\) are continuous and positive functions, \(i=1,2\); The nonlinearities \(f, g:[0,\infty )\times [0,\infty )\to [0, \infty )\) are continuous, and \(\lambda , \mu >0\) are parameters. We also assume the periodic *Ï‰* is a positive number to avoid the trivial cases.

By a positive periodic solution of system (1.1), we mean a solution \((u,v)\in E:=X^{2}\) of (1.1) satisfying \(u>0\), \(v>0\) on \([0,\omega ]\), where

is the Banach space with the usual norm \(\|u\|=\max_{t\in [0,\omega ]}|u(t)|\). In addition, we write \(\|(u,v)\|= \|u\|+\|v\|\) for \((u,v)\in E\).

In some special situations, the *u*-equation of system (1.1) becomes

and if \(\lambda =0\), then (1.2) reduces to \(u'(t)+a(t)u(t)=0\), which is well known in Malthusian population models. In real world applications, (1.2) has also been viewed as a mathematical model to describe a variety of physiological processes, such as the control of testosterone levels in the blood stream, the production of blood cells, cardiac arrhythmias and so on. In view of this, Eq.Â (1.2) has been widely studied by a number of authors during the past few decades. Among them, one may refer, with references therein, to [1â€“14]. Besides, researchers have also focused on the existence of positive periodic solutions of differential systems corresponds to (1.2) of the form

we refer the readers here to Wang [15, 16] and Chen et al. [17] for some related results in this direction.

Obviously, system (1.3) considered in the existing literature contains only one parameter \(\lambda >0\), and therefore it seems to be interesting to study the multi-parameter system (1.1). On the other hand, what is worth mentioning is that Zhang et al. [18] have established the existence of positive periodic solutions of system (1.1) for the special case \(g_{i}\equiv 1\), \(i=1,2\), where \(f(u,v)\) and \(g(u,v)\) were assumed to be nondecreasing, and the authors have only dealt with the case \(f(0,0)>0\), \(g(0,0)>0\). Therefore, it is interesting to see whether or not (1.1) admits a positive periodic solution under more relaxed assumptions \(f(0,0)=0\), \(g(0,0)=0\). In the current paper, we shall apply a fixed point theorem in cones to establish the existence and multiplicity of positive periodic solutions of (1.1), to further generalize and complement those in [16â€“18]. For other research work on differential equations and systems with multi-parameters, we refer the reader to [19â€“21] and the references therein.

We conclude this section giving the main tool adopted in the subsequent discussion.

### Lemma 1.1

*Let**E**be a Banach space and*\(K\subseteq E\)*a cone*. *Assume*\(\varOmega _{1}\), \(\varOmega _{2}\)*are open subsets of**E**with*\(0\in \varOmega _{1}\), \(\bar{\varOmega }_{1}\subseteq \varOmega _{2}\)*and let*

*be a completely continuous operator such that either*

- (i)
\(\|Tu\|\leq \|u\|\), \(u\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{1}\),

*and*\(\|Tu\|\geq \|u\|\), \(u\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{2}\),

*or*

- (ii)
\(\|Tu\|\geq \|u\|\), \(u\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{1}\),

*and*\(\|Tu\|\leq \|u\|\), \(u\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{2}\).

*Then**T**has a fixed point in*\(K\cap (\bar{\varOmega }_{2}\setminus \varOmega _{1})\).

The rest of the paper is arranged as follows. In Sect.Â 2, we introduce some preliminaries required during our proof. In Sect.Â 3, we shall state and prove the existence and multiplicity results established for (1.1). And finally in Sect.Â 4, we give some related results and remarks to demonstrate the feasibility of our main findings.

## 2 Preliminaries

Suppose that \((u,v)\in E\) is a *Ï‰*-periodic solution of system (1.1), then by simple calculation we can obtain

where the Green functions \(G_{1}(t,s)\) and \(G_{2}(t,s)\) can be expressed as

for \(t\leq s\leq t+\omega \).

### Lemma 2.1

*Assume that*

- (H1)
\(a_{i}, b_{i}\in C(\mathbb{R},[0,\infty ))\)

*are**Ï‰*-*periodic with*\(\int _{0}^{\omega }a_{i}(t)\,dt>0\)*and*\(\int _{0}^{\omega }b_{i}(t)\,dt>0\), \(i=1,2\). - (H2)
*There are*\(l_{i}, L_{i}>0\)*such that*\(0< l_{i}\leq g_{i}(s) \leq L_{i}\)*for all*\(s\in [0,\infty )\).

*Then we have*, *for*\(i=1,2\),

### Proof

Applying the assumptions (H1) and (H2), and by simple estimation, we can easily get the conclusions.â€ƒâ–¡

For \(i=1,2\), we denote

Then it is not difficult to check that \(\sigma _{i}\in (0,1)\), and accordingly \(\sigma :=\min \{\sigma _{1}, \sigma _{2}\}\in (0,1)\), which allows us to define some suitable cone in *E* as below. Indeed, setting

Then *P* and *K* are cones in *E*.

Define, for given \((u,v)\in E\),

where

and

Then we have the following.

### Lemma 2.2

*Assume that* (H1) *and* (H2) *hold*. *Then*\(T(P)\subseteq K\)*and*\(T:P\to K\)*is compact and continuous*.

### Proof

Choosing \((u,v)\in P\), then

which yields

On the other hand, by LemmaÂ 2.1 and (2.1) we can obtain

Proof of \(B(u,v)(t)\geq \sigma \|B(u,v)\|\) can be handled in an analogous manner. Consequently, we have \(T(P)\subseteq K\). The completely continuity of *T* is evident.â€ƒâ–¡

Clearly, if \((u,v)\) is a fixed point of the operator equation

then the original system (1.1) admits a positive *Ï‰*-periodic solution \((u,v)\). Therefore, we shall concentrate on Eq.Â (2.2) in the arguments that follow.

## 3 Main results

In this section, we shall state and prove our main findings. We first introduce some notations as follows:

### Theorem 3.1

*Assume* (H1) *and* (H2). *If*\(f_{0}=g_{0}=0\)*and*\(f_{\infty }=\infty \), *then system* (1.1) *admits at least one positive**Ï‰*-*periodic solution for all*\(\lambda >0\), \(\mu >0\).

### Proof

Since \(f_{0}=g_{0}=0\), there exists a \(r_{1}>0\) such that, for \(0< u\), \(v\leq r_{1}\),

where the positive constant *Îµ* satisfies

and \(M_{i}>0\) is given by (2.1). Let

Then \((0,0)\in \varOmega _{1}\) and for \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{1}\), we can get by (3.1) that

An analogous estimate also gives \(B(u,v)(t)\leq \frac{1}{2}\|(u,v)\|\). Thus,

On the other hand, since \(f_{\infty }=\infty \), there exists \(\hat{r}>0\) so that \(f(u,v)\geq \delta (u+v)\) for \(u+v\geq \hat{r}\), where \(\delta >0\) is large enough such that

and \(\sigma =\min \{\sigma _{1},\sigma _{2}\}\in (0,1)\) is introduced in Sect.Â 2. Setting \(r_{2}=\max \{2r_{1},\frac{\hat{r}}{\sigma }\}\) and

Then it is not hard to see \(\bar{\varOmega }_{1}\subseteq \varOmega _{2}\). Moreover for \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{2}\), we can deduce from (3.2) that

which implies \(\|T(u,v)\|\geq \|A(u,v)\|\geq \|(u,v)\|\), \((u,v)\in K \cap \partial \varOmega _{2}\).

Consequently, LemmaÂ 1.1 guarantees *T* admits a fixed point \((u,v)\in K\cap (\bar{\varOmega }_{2}\setminus \varOmega _{1})\) with \(r_{1}\leq \|(u,v)\|\leq r_{2}\), and thus system (1.1) has a positive *Ï‰*-periodic solution.â€ƒâ–¡

Using LemmaÂ 1.1 again, we can establish the following corollary with some obvious modifications in the proof of TheoremÂ 3.1.

### Corollary 3.1

*Let* (H1) *and* (H2) *hold*. *If*\(f_{0}=g_{0}=0\)*and*\(g_{\infty }=\infty \), *then system* (1.1) *has at least one positive**Ï‰*-*periodic solution for all*\(\lambda >0\), \(\mu >0\).

### Theorem 3.2

*Assume* (H1) *and* (H2). *If*\(f_{\infty }=g_{\infty }=0\)*and*\(f_{0}=\infty \), *then system* (1.1) *admits at least one positive**Ï‰*-*periodic solution for all*\(\lambda >0\), \(\mu >0\).

### Proof

We shall follow the same strategy and notations as before. Firstly, we show there is a \(r_{1}>0\) such that

In fact, since \(f_{0}=\infty \), a constant \(r_{1}>0\) can be chosen so that \(f(u,v)\geq \tilde{\delta }(u+v)\) for \(0< u\), \(v\leq r_{1}\), where \(\tilde{\delta }>0\) is sufficiently large such that \(\tilde{\delta } \lambda m_{1}\sigma \cdot \int _{0}^{\omega }b_{1}(s)\,ds\geq 1\). Let \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{1}\). Then

which means (3.3) is true.

We next show there exists \(r_{2}>0\) satisfying

To the end, we shall denote \(\bar{f}(\epsilon )=\max_{0\leq u+v\leq \epsilon }f(u,v)\) and \(\bar{g}(\epsilon )= \max_{0\leq u+v\leq \epsilon }g(u,v)\). Clearly, \(\bar{f}( \epsilon )\) and \(\bar{g}(\epsilon )\) are nondecreasing, and \(\lim_{\epsilon \to \infty }\frac{\bar{f}(\epsilon )}{\epsilon }=0=\lim_{\epsilon \to \infty }\frac{\bar{g}(\epsilon )}{ \epsilon }\) since \(f_{\infty }=g_{\infty }=0\). Now we may choose \(r_{2}>2r_{1}\) so that, for \(\epsilon \geq r_{2}\),

where *Îµ* is a positive constant satisfies (3.1). For \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{2}\), we can obtain

Similarly, \(B(u,v)(t)\leq \frac{1}{2}\|(u,v)\|\) for \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{2}\). Hence (3.4) holds true.

Finally, LemmaÂ 1.1 shows that system (1.1) admits a positive *Ï‰*-periodic solution.â€ƒâ–¡

The following existence result is an analog of TheoremÂ 3.2, and it can be proved in an analogous way as above.

### Corollary 3.2

*Let* (H1) *and* (H2) *hold*. *If*\(f_{\infty }=g_{ \infty }=0\)*and*\(g_{0}=\infty \), *then system* (1.1) *has at least one positive**Ï‰*-*periodic solution for all*\(\lambda >0\), \(\mu >0\).

Let us consider the multiplicity of positive periodic solutions in the remainder of the section. Suppose in addition that

- (H3)
\(f(u,v)>0\) and \(g(u,v)>0\) for \(u, v>0\).

### Theorem 3.3

*Assume* (H1)*â€“*(H3). *If*\(f_{0}=f_{\infty }=g_{0}=g _{\infty }=0\), *then there exists a constant*\(\rho _{1}>0\)*such that* (1.1) *admits at least two positive**Ï‰*-*periodic solutions for all*\(\lambda , \mu \geq \rho _{1}\).

### Proof

Let us define several numbers corresponds to \((u,v)\in K\) with \(\|(u,v)\|=d\),

and \(\gamma (d)=\min \{\gamma _{1}(d),\gamma _{2}(d)\}\). Then it is not difficult to see \(\gamma (d)>0\) for \(d>0\). Choosing \(0< r_{3}< r_{4}\) and setting \(\varOmega _{i}=\{(u,v)\in E: \|(u,v)\|< r_{i}\}\) for \(i=3,4\). Let \(\rho _{1}=\max \{\frac{r_{3}}{2\gamma (r_{3})},\frac{r_{4}}{2 \gamma (r_{4})} \}\). Then we can prove for \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{3}\) and \(\lambda , \mu \geq \rho _{1}\),

then, as above, we obtain \(A(u,v)(t)\geq \frac{r_{4}}{2}=\frac{1}{2} \|(u,v)\|\) for \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{4}\) and

Therefore, \(\|T(u,v)\|\geq \|(u,v)\|\) for \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{i}\), \(i=3,4\).

Applying the assumption \(f_{0}=g_{0}=0\) and by an argument similar to the proof of TheoremÂ 3.1, \(r_{1}>0\) can be chosen so that \(r_{1}<\frac{r _{3}}{2}\) and

and similarly, we may choose \(r_{2}>2r_{4}\) such that \(\|T(u,v)\| \leq \|(u,v)\|\) for \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{2}\), where \(\varOmega _{1}\), \(\varOmega _{2}\) are defined as in TheoremÂ 3.1. Obviously, LemmaÂ 1.1 shows that system (1.1) has two distinct positive *Ï‰*-periodic solutions.â€ƒâ–¡

### Theorem 3.4

*Assume* (H1)*â€“*(H3). *Then there exists a constant*\(\rho _{2}>0\)*so that* (1.1) *has at least two positive**Ï‰*-*periodic solutions for all*\(\lambda , \mu \leq \rho _{2}\), *provided that either*\(f_{0}=\infty \)*or*\(g_{0}=\infty \)*and either*\(f_{\infty }=\infty \)*or*\(g_{\infty }=\infty \).

### Proof

Similar to the proof of TheoremÂ 3.3, we can denote

and \(\varGamma (d)=\max \{\varGamma _{1}(d),\varGamma _{2}(d)\}\) for given \((u,v)\in K\) with \(\|(u,v)\|=d\). Clearly, \(\varGamma (d)>0\) for \(d>0\). Let \(0< r_{3}< r_{4}\) and \(\rho _{2}=\min \{ \frac{r_{3}}{2\varGamma (r_{3})},\frac{r_{4}}{2\varGamma (r_{4})} \}\). Then

for \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{3}\) and \(\lambda , \mu \leq \rho _{2}\). AÂ similar estimation also gives \(A(u,v)(t)\leq \frac{r_{4}}{2}= \frac{1}{2}\|(u,v)\|\) for \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{4}\) and

where \(\varOmega _{i}\) (\(i=3,4\)) are defined by TheoremÂ 3.3. Hence \(\|T(u,v)\|\leq \|(u,v)\|\) for \((u,v)\in K\cap \partial \varOmega _{i}\), \(i=3,4\). Choosing \(r_{1}<\frac{r_{3}}{2}\) and \(r_{2}>2r_{4}\). Then, by the assumptions of the theorem and a same argument as Theorems 3.1 and 3.2, we can show

Consequently, LemmaÂ 1.1 ensures (1.1) has two distinct positive *Ï‰*-periodic solutions.â€ƒâ–¡

### Remark 3.1

We would like to point out that the results obtained in the present paper are distinct from those in [16â€“18], since we have considered the differential systems in the multi-parameter case without any monotonicity assumptions on nonlinear terms, and we allow for \(f(0,0)=0\), \(g(0,0)=0\).

## 4 Related results and remarks

Let us consider the following multi-parameter systems

Under the same assumptions as before, one can see (4.1) is equivalent to

where

Furthermore, by inspection of the arguments in Sects.Â 2 and 3, it is not difficult to see our main results remain true for system (4.1).

### Remark 4.1

It is worth remarking that under some natural assumptions, the results of the paper are still valid for more general coupled systems

and

### Remark 4.2

In this paper, we have not considered the multi-parameter system (1.1) for the case \(g_{i}\) is unbounded as in [7â€“9]. Nevertheless, but we believe that in the case, systems (1.1) may have positive periodic solutions if some suitable cones can de defined. It will be treated in the forthcoming paper.

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## Funding

The first author is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11761004; No. 11701012), the First-Class Disciplines Foundation of Ningxia (No. NXYLXK2017B09) and the Key Project of North Minzu University (No. ZDZX201804).

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RC carried out the analysis and proof the main results, and was a major contributor in writing the manuscript. XL participated in checking of the proofs, English grammar as well as typing errors in the full text. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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### Cite this article

Chen, R., Li, X. New existence results for coupled delayed differential systems with multi-parameters.
*Bound Value Probl* **2020**, 2 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13661-019-01313-3

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13661-019-01313-3