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RETRACTED ARTICLE:Existence of global solutions for the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem of the Schrödinger equation

This article was retracted on 19 January 2021

This article has been updated

Abstract

This paper is concerned with the global existence of solutions for the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem of the Schrödinger equation. Firstly, based on the Schrödinger approximation technique and the theory of a family of potential wells, the authors obtain the invariant sets and vacuum isolating of global solutions including the critical case. Then, the global existence of solutions and the stability of equilibrium points are discussed. Finally, the global asymptotic stability of the unique positive equilibrium point of the system is proved by applying the Leray–Schauder alternative fixed point theorem.

Introduction

The semilinear Schrödinger equation serves widely the field of nonlinear science, ranging from condensed matter physics to biology [13]. Solutions of the fractional Cauchy problem exist in the semilinear Schrödinger equations and have been observed in experiments [4, 5]. In the past decade, the existence of solutions of the fractional Cauchy problem of the semilinear Schrödinger equations has been a very hot topic [69]. Methods such as the principle of anticontinuity, center manifold reduction, and variational methods were used. However, only a few results were obtained on the existence of global solutions for the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem of the Schrödinger equation. Since it appears in inflation cosmology and supersymmetric field theories, quantum mechanics, and nuclear physics [1012], the sublinear nonlinearity is of much interest in physics. How the sublinear nonlinearity affects the existence of global solutions for the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem of the Schrödinger equation remains to be fully understood.

In this paper, we study the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem of the Schrödinger equation:

$$ \begin{gathered} if_{t}+\Delta f-\Delta ^{2}f=- \vert f \vert ^{p}f,\quad (x,t)\in \mathbb{R}^{n}\times [0,L), \\ f(0,x)=f_{0}(x), \end{gathered} $$
(1.1)

where \(i=\sqrt{-1}\), \(\Delta ^{2}=\Delta \Delta \) is the biharmonic operator, Δ is the Laplace operator in \(\mathbb{R}^{n}\);

$$ f(x,t) :\mathbb{R}^{n}\times [0,L)\to \mathbb{C} $$

denotes the complex-valued function, L is the maximum existence time; n is the space dimension, and p satisfies the embedding condition

$$ 0< p< \textstyle\begin{cases} +\infty , &2\leq n \leq 3, \\ \frac{2}{n-3}, &n>3. \end{cases} $$
(1.2)

It is worth mentioning that variational methods are powerful for obtaining the existence of solutions of fourth-order semilinear Schrödinger equation because of their strong physical background. In particular, the following equation has been widely studied (see [13]):

$$ if_{x}+\frac{1}{2}\Delta f+\frac{1}{2} \gamma \Delta ^{2}f+ \vert f \vert ^{2p}f=0, $$
(1.3)

where \(\gamma \in \mathbb{R}\), \(p\geq 1\), and the space dimension is no more than three. Problem (1.3) describes a stable soliton, specially, there are solitons in magnetic materials for \(p=1\) in a 3-D space.

Using the Strichartz-type estimates and Gagliardo–Nirenberg’s inequalities, Zhang et al. [14] proved the existence of a global solution to the Cauchy problem

$$ \begin{gathered} if_{t}+\epsilon \Delta ^{2} f+ \vert f \vert ^{2p}f=0,\quad (x,t)\in \mathbb{R} ^{n}\times [0,L), \\ f(0,x)=f_{0}(x), \end{gathered} $$
(1.4)

under each of the following three sets of conditions:

  1. (i)

    \(\epsilon >0\);

  2. (ii)

    \(\epsilon <0\) and \(pn<3\);

  3. (iii)

    \(\epsilon <0\), \(pn=3\), and

$$ \Vert f_{0} \Vert ^{3}_{3}< \Vert \mathcal{R}_{B} \Vert ^{3}_{3}, $$

where

$$ -\Delta ^{3}\mathcal{R}_{B}-\mathcal{R}_{B}+ \mathcal{R}_{B}^{ \frac{4}{n}+1}=0. $$

It is easy to verify that (1.4) implies (1.3) by using the L’Hospital rule. Moreover, we prove that if f is not sublinear, the zero solution is isolated from other homoclinic solutions. The oddness assumption on f is important since it is necessary for applying the variant Clark theorem.

In 2019, Sun [15] studied the Cauchy problem of the equation

$$ \begin{gathered} if_{t}+\mu \Delta ^{2}f+\lambda \Delta f+f\bigl( \vert f \vert ^{2} \bigr)f=0,\quad (x,t) \in \mathbb{R}^{n}\times [0,L), \\ f(0,x)=f_{0}(x), \end{gathered} $$
(1.5)

where \(\lambda \in \mathbb{R}\) and \(\mu \neq 0\).

Let \(n=1, 2, 3\), by the standard contraction mapping argument, a local solution for \(f_{0}\in H^{k}\) and \(k>\frac{n}{2}\) was obtained. Then the authors obtained a global solution of (1.5) with \(\nu f^{2p}\) instead of \(f(|f|^{2})\) for each of the following three sets of conditions:

  1. (i)

    \(\mu \nu >0\);

  2. (ii)

    \(\mu \nu <0\) and \(0< pn<3\);

  3. (iii)

    \(\mu \nu <0\), \(pn\geq 3\), and the initial data \(\|f_{0}\|_{3} ^{3}\leq c^{*}\), where \(0< c^{*}\leq 1\).

Equation (1.5) with the zero solution can been classified into the following two types:

  1. (i)

    the zero solution is an accumulation point of the set of all homoclinic solutions;

  2. (ii)

    the zero solution is an isolated point of the set of all homoclinic solutions.

In the above statement, we adopt the \(H^{2}\)-topology. Then types (i) and (ii) are rewritten as follows:

  1. (i)

    There exists a sequence of nontrivial homoclinic solutions for (1.5) whose \(l^{\infty }\)-norm converges to zero;

  2. (ii)

    There exists a constant \(C>0\) such that \(\|f\|_{\infty } \ge C>0\) for all nontrivial homoclinic solutions f of (1.5).

Unlike type (i), many existing results concentrated on the existence of a sequence of solutions going to infinity. However, we mainly focus on types (i) and (ii). The most typical example of type (I) is as follows (see [1626]):

$$ \operatorname{div}\bigl(\chi (x)\nabla f+\mathcal{H}(x)\omega \bigr)-\omega _{t} $$

and

$$ \operatorname{div}\bigl(\chi (x)\nabla f+\mathcal{H}(x)\omega \bigr)-(f+\omega )_{t}, $$

and that \(f\in C^{1}([0,L]; L^{p}(\gimel ))\) for all \(p\in (0,1)\) in the second class.

In this paper, we use a modified Schrödinger-type identity posted by Zhang et al. [14] and prove the existence of global solutions for the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem of the Schrödinger equation.

The present article is organized as follows. In the next section, we establish a modified Schrödinger-type identity associated with semilinear Schrödinger operator. Section 3 is the statement of our main results and its explanation, and then we investigate the linear stability of equilibria by means of spectrum and semigroups of operators.

A modified Schrödinger-type identity

To obtain the main results, for the reader’s convenience, we include this section by citing some basic notations and some known results from the critical point theory.

We first define the Hilbert space

$$ \mathcal{H}= \biggl\{ f\in H^{1}\bigl( \mathbb{R}^{n}\bigr): \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert \vert f \vert ^{2}\,dx< \infty \biggr\} , $$
(2.1)

the Schrödinger-type energy functional

$$\begin{aligned}& \mathcal{E}(f)= \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \biggl(\frac{1}{2} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}+ \frac{1}{2} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}- \frac{1}{p+1} \vert f \vert ^{p+1} \biggr)\,dx, \\& \mathcal{P}(f)= \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \biggl(\frac{1}{2} \vert f \vert ^{2}+ \frac{1}{2} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2} + \frac{1}{2} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}-\frac{1}{p+1} \vert f \vert ^{p+1} \biggr)\,dx, \end{aligned}$$
(2.2)

and

$$\begin{aligned}& \mathfrak{I}(f)= \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \biggl( \vert f \vert ^{2}+ \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2} + \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}- \frac{np}{p+1} \vert f \vert ^{p+1} \biggr)\,dx. \end{aligned}$$

Next we define the Nehari manifold by

$$ M=\bigl\{ f\in \mathcal{H}\setminus \{0\}:\mathfrak{I}(f)=0\bigr\} . $$

Set \(c=\inf_{f\in M}\mathcal{P}(f)\). So the stable set \(\mathcal{G}\) and the unstable set \(\mathcal{B}\) are defined by

$$\begin{aligned}& \mathcal{G}=\bigl\{ f\in \mathcal{H}|\mathcal{P}(f)< c,\mathfrak{I}(f)>0\bigr\} \cup \{0\} \end{aligned}$$

and

$$\begin{aligned}& \mathcal{B}=\bigl\{ f\in \mathcal{H}|\mathcal{P}(f)< c, \mathfrak{I}(f)< 0\bigr\} , \end{aligned}$$

respectively (see [27]).

Remark 2.1

(i) For the set \(\mathcal{G}\), it is obvious that \(\mathcal{P}(f)>0\) by \(\mathfrak{I}(f)>0\). So \(\mathcal{G}\) is equivalent to \(\mathcal{G'}\), which is defined as follows:

$$ \mathcal{G'}= \bigl\{ f\in \mathcal{ H}|0< \mathcal{P}(f)< c, \mathfrak{I}(f)>0 \bigr\} \cup \{ 0 \} . $$

(ii). For the set \(\mathcal{B}\), if \(\mathcal{P}(f)\leq 0\), then we know that \(\mathcal{E}(f)<0\), which is a sufficient condition for finite time blow-up. So we only consider \(\mathcal{E}(f)>0\), i.e., we only need

$$ \mathcal{B'}= \bigl\{ f\in \mathcal{ H}|0< \mathfrak{P}(f)< c, \mathfrak{I}(f)< 0 \bigr\} . $$

Now we present a modified Schrödinger-type identity for problem (1.1), which plays a central role in our study.

Theorem 2.1

Assume that \(f_{0}\in \mathcal{B}\) and \(f\in C^{2}([0,L);\mathcal{H} ^{2})\) is the solution of problem (1.1). Let \(\mathfrak{J}(t)= \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}|x|^{3}|f|^{2}\,dx\), then the modified Schrödinger-type identity is given by

$$ \mathfrak{J}''(t) =8 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \biggl( \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}- \frac{np}{p+1} \vert f \vert ^{p+1} \biggr)\,dx. $$

Proof of Theorem 2.1

It follows that

$$ \begin{aligned}[b] \mathfrak{J}'(t) &= \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert ^{3} (f \bar{f}_{x}+ \bar{f}f_{x} )\,dx \\ &= \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert ^{3} (\overline{ \bar{f}f_{x}}+\bar{f}f_{x} )\,dx \\ &=2\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}f_{x} \,dx, \end{aligned} $$
(2.3)

which yields that

$$ f_{x}=i \bigl(\Delta f-\Delta ^{2}f+ \vert f \vert ^{p}f \bigr). $$
(2.4)

Substituting (2.4) into (2.3), we have

$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak{J}'(t) &=2\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}i \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f} \bigl( \Delta f-\Delta ^{2}f+ \vert f \vert ^{p}f \bigr)\,dx \\ &=-2\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert ^{3}\bar{f} \bigl(\Delta f- \Delta ^{2}f+ \vert f \vert ^{p}f \bigr)\,dx \\ &=-2\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert ^{3} \bigl(\bar{f} \Delta f-\bar{f}\Delta ^{2}f+ \vert f \vert ^{p+1} \bigr)\,dx \\ &=-2\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert ^{3} \bigl(\bar{f} \Delta f-\bar{f}\Delta ^{2}f \bigr)\,dx, \end{aligned}$$

which yields that

$$ \begin{aligned}[b] \mathfrak{J}''(t)&=-2 \operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert ^{3} \bigl( \bar{f}_{t}\Delta f+\bar{f}\Delta f_{t}- \bar{f}_{t}\Delta ^{2}f -\bar{f}\Delta ^{2}f_{t} \bigr)\,dx \\ &=-2\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert ^{3} ( \bar{f}_{t}\Delta f+\bar{f}\Delta f_{t} )\,dx \\ &\quad{}+2\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert ^{3} \bigl( \bar{f}_{t}\Delta ^{2}f +\bar{f}\Delta ^{2}f_{t} \bigr)\,dx \\ &=-2 \mathcal{K}_{1}+2\mathcal{K}_{2}, \end{aligned} $$
(2.5)

where

$$ \mathfrak{K}_{1}:=\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert ^{3} (\bar{f} _{t}\Delta f+\bar{f}\Delta f_{t} )\,dx \quad \text{and} \quad \mathfrak{K}_{2}:=\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert x \vert ^{3} \bigl(\bar{f} _{t}\Delta ^{2}f+\bar{f}\Delta ^{2}f_{t} \bigr)\,dx. $$

Now we estimate \(\mathfrak{K}_{1}\) and \(\mathfrak{K}_{2}\). It is obvious that (see [28])

$$ \begin{aligned} \mathfrak{K}_{1} &=\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t}\Delta f+\Delta \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f} \bigr)f_{t} \bigr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta f+f_{t}\sum_{i=1}^{n} \frac{\partial ^{2}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3}\bar{f} \bigr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R} ^{n}} \Biggl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t}\Delta f+f_{t}\sum_{i=1}^{n} \frac{\partial }{\partial x_{i}} \biggl( \vert x \vert ^{3}\frac{\partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}}+2x _{i}\bar{f} \biggr) \Biggr)\,dx, \end{aligned} $$

which together with (2.5) gives that

$$ \begin{aligned}[b] \mathfrak{K}_{1} &= \operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t}\Delta f+f_{t} \Biggl(n\bar{f}+4\sum _{i=1}^{n}x_{i}\cdot \frac{ \partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}}+ \vert x \vert ^{3}\sum_{i=1}^{n} \frac{\partial ^{2}\bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \Biggr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t}\Delta f +f_{t} \bigl(n \bar{f}+4x\cdot \nabla \bar{f}+ \vert x \vert ^{3}\Delta \bar{f} \bigr) \bigr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta f +\overline{ \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t}\Delta f}+f_{t}(n\bar{f}+4x \cdot \nabla \bar{f}) \bigr)\,dx \\ &=2\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}f_{t} (n\bar{f}+2x\cdot \nabla \bar{f} )\,dx. \end{aligned} $$
(2.6)

To estimate \(\mathfrak{K}_{2}\), note that

$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak{K}_{2} &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t}\Delta ^{2}f+\Delta \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3}\bar{f} \bigr)\Delta f _{t} \bigr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta ^{2}f+\Delta f_{t}\sum _{i=1}^{n} \frac{\partial ^{2}}{\partial x _{i}^{2}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3}\bar{f} \bigr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta ^{2}f+\Delta f_{t}\sum _{i=1}^{n} \frac{\partial }{\partial x _{i}} \biggl(2x_{i} \bar{f}+ \vert x \vert ^{3} \frac{\partial \bar{f}}{\partial x _{i}} \biggr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta ^{2}f+\Delta f_{t} \Biggl(n \bar{f} +4\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_{i} \frac{ \partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}} + \vert x \vert ^{3}\sum _{i=1}^{n}\frac{\partial ^{2}\bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \Biggr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta ^{2}f+\Delta f_{t} \Biggl(n \bar{f} +4\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_{i} \frac{ \partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}} + \vert x \vert ^{3}\sum _{i=1}^{n}\frac{\partial ^{2}\bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \Biggr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta ^{2}f+\Delta f_{t} \bigl(n \bar{f} +4x\cdot \nabla \bar{f}+ \vert x \vert ^{3} \Delta \bar{f} \bigr) \bigr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta ^{2}f+f_{t} \bigl(n\Delta \bar{f} +4\Delta (x\cdot \nabla \bar{f})+\Delta \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3}\Delta \bar{f} \bigr) \bigr) \bigr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta ^{2}f+f_{t} \Biggl(n\Delta \bar{f} +4\sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac{\partial ^{2}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \Biggl(\sum_{j=1}^{n} \biggl(x_{j} \frac{\partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}} \biggr) \Biggr) \\ &\quad{}+\sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac{\partial ^{2}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \Delta \bar{f}\bigr) \Biggr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta ^{2}f+nf_{t}\Delta \bar{f} \bigr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}+4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}f_{t} \Biggl(\sum _{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1}^{n} \frac{\partial ^{2}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \biggl(x_{j}\frac{ \partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}} \biggr) +\sum _{i=1}^{n}\frac{\partial }{\partial x_{i}} \biggl(2x_{i} \Delta \bar{f} + \vert x \vert ^{3}\frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}} \biggr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta ^{2}f +nf_{t}\Delta \bar{f} \bigr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}+4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}f_{t}\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1}^{n}\frac{\partial }{\partial x_{i}} \biggl( \frac{\partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}}+x_{j} \frac{\partial ^{2}\bar{f}}{\partial x _{i}\partial x_{j}} \biggr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}+\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}f_{t} \Biggl(n\Delta \bar{f} +4 \sum _{i=1}^{n}x_{i}\frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}} + \vert x \vert ^{3} \sum_{i=1}^{n} \frac{\partial ^{2}\Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t} \Delta ^{2}f+nf_{t}\Delta \bar{f} \bigr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}+4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}f_{t} \Biggl(2\sum _{i=1}^{n}\frac{ \partial ^{2}\bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} +\sum _{i=1}^{n}\sum_{j=1} ^{n} \biggl(x_{j}\frac{\partial ^{3}\bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}\partial x _{j}} \biggr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}+\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}f_{t} \bigl(n\Delta \bar{f}+4x \cdot \nabla (\Delta \bar{f})+ \vert x \vert ^{3}\Delta ^{2} \bar{f} \bigr)\,dx. \end{aligned}$$

Hence, by (2.5), we deduce that

$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak{K}_{2} &=\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert x \vert ^{3} \bar{f}_{t}\Delta ^{2}f+nf_{t}\Delta \bar{f} \bigr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}+4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}f_{t} \Biggl(2\Delta \bar{f}+ \sum _{i=1}^{n}\sum_{j=1}^{n} \biggl(x_{j}\frac{\partial }{\partial x _{j}} \biggl(\frac{\partial ^{2}\bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \biggr) \biggr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}+\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl(f_{t} \bigl(n\Delta \bar{f}+4x\cdot \nabla (\Delta \bar{f}) \bigr) + \vert x \vert ^{3}\overline{ \bar{f}_{t}\Delta ^{2}f} \bigr)\,dx. \end{aligned}$$

So

$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak{K}_{2} &=4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}f_{t} \bigl(N \Delta \bar{f} +x\cdot \nabla (\Delta \bar{f}) \bigr)\,dx+4 \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}f_{t} \bigl(2\Delta \bar{f}+x \cdot \nabla (\Delta \bar{f}) \bigr)\,dx \\ &=4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}f_{t} \bigl(N\Delta \bar{f} +2x\cdot \nabla (\Delta \bar{f})+2\Delta \bar{f} \bigr)\,dx. \end{aligned}$$
(2.7)

Set

$$\begin{aligned}& \mathfrak{I}_{1}:=\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\Delta f \bigl((n+2)\Delta \bar{f}+4x\cdot \nabla ( \Delta \bar{f}) -n\bar{f}-2x \cdot \nabla \bar{f} \bigr)\,dx, \\& \mathfrak{I}_{2}:=\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\Delta ^{2}f \bigl((n+2)\Delta \bar{f}+4x \cdot \nabla (\Delta \bar{f}) -n\bar{f}-2x \cdot \nabla \bar{f} \bigr)\,dx, \\& \mathfrak{I}_{3}:=\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}f \bigl((n+2)\Delta \bar{f} +4x\cdot \nabla (\Delta \bar{f})-n\bar{f}-2x \cdot \nabla \bar{f} \bigr)\,dx. \end{aligned}$$

For the corresponding semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem, the modified Schrödinger-type identity with respect to x is employed to get the Schrödinger equations of t. However, since an additional variable x is involved for semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problems, an additional modified Schrödinger-type identity is needed for the analysis (see [29, 30]). After careful consideration, we find it to be effective and befitting the Schrödinger well-posedness analysis.

Furthermore, taking the Fourier transform of (2.6) and (2.7) with respect to x and combining the above estimates, we obtain

$$ \begin{aligned}[b] \mathfrak{J}''(t) &=4\operatorname{Im} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}i \bigl(\Delta f- \Delta ^{2}f+ \vert f \vert ^{p}f \bigr) \bigl((n+2)\Delta \bar{f} +4x\cdot \nabla (\Delta \bar{f}) \\ &\quad{}-n\bar{f}-2x\cdot \nabla \bar{f} \bigr)\,dx \\ &=4 \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl(\Delta f-\Delta ^{2}f+ \vert f \vert ^{p}f \bigr) \bigl((n+2)\Delta \bar{f} +4x\cdot \nabla (\Delta \bar{f}) \\ &\quad{}-n \bar{f}-2x\cdot \nabla \bar{f} \bigr)\,dx \\ &=4 (\mathfrak{I}_{1}- \mathfrak{I}_{2}+ \mathfrak{I}_{3} ). \end{aligned} $$
(2.8)

The causality of the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem implies the finite Schrödinger energy at each time (see [31]). Thus

$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak{I}_{1} &=(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx + \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl(4x\cdot \nabla (\Delta \bar{f}) \Delta f-n \bar{f}\Delta f-2x\cdot \nabla \bar{f}\Delta f \bigr)\,dx \\ &=(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx+n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl(4\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_{i} \biggl(\frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}}\Delta f \biggr) +2 \nabla (x\cdot \nabla \bar{f})\cdot \nabla f \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx+n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl(2\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_{i} \biggl(\frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}}\Delta f +\frac{ \partial \Delta f}{\partial x_{i}}\Delta \bar{f} \biggr) \\ &\quad{}+2\sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac{\partial }{\partial x_{i}} \Biggl(\sum_{j=1} ^{n} \biggl(x_{j} \frac{\partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}} \biggr) \Biggr) \frac{ \partial f}{\partial x_{i}} \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx+n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl(2\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_{i} \frac{ \partial }{\partial x_{i}}(\Delta f\Delta \bar{f}) +2\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1}^{n}\frac{\partial }{\partial x_{i}} \biggl(x_{j}\frac{\partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}} \biggr) \frac{\partial f}{\partial x_{i}} \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx+n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl(2x\cdot \nabla \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}+2\sum_{i=1}^{n} \frac{\partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}}\frac{ \partial f}{\partial x_{i}} +2\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1}^{n}x_{j} \frac{ \partial ^{2}\bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}\partial x_{j}} \frac{\partial f}{ \partial x_{i}} \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx +n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx-n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+2 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx+ \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl(\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1}^{n}x_{j} \biggl( \frac{ \partial ^{2}\bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}\partial x_{j}} \frac{\partial f}{ \partial x_{i}}+\frac{\partial ^{2}u}{\partial x_{i}\partial x_{j}} \frac{ \partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}} \biggr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=4 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx+(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \Biggl(\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1} ^{n}x_{j} \frac{\partial }{\partial x_{j}} \biggl(\frac{\partial \bar{f}}{ \partial x_{i}}\frac{\partial f}{\partial x_{i}} \biggr) \Biggr)\,dx \\ &=4 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx+(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx + \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}x\cdot \nabla \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &=4 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx+(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx -n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx. \end{aligned}$$

The inverse Schrödinger-type identity gives that

$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak{I}_{1} &=4 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx+2 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{2}\,dx. \end{aligned}$$

Based on the above analysis, there is always an inverse Schrödinger-type identity with the strong inversion formula. For simplification, assume that the strong inversion Schrödinger-type identity can be used to estimate \(\mathfrak{I}_{2}\).

$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak{I}_{2} &=-(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\Delta ^{2}fx\cdot \nabla ( \Delta \bar{f})\,dx -2\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\Delta ^{2}fx \cdot \nabla \bar{f}\,dx \\ &=-(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}-4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\nabla (\Delta f)\cdot \nabla \bigl(x\cdot \nabla ( \Delta \bar{f}) \bigr)\,dx -2 \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\Delta f\Delta (x\cdot \nabla \bar{f})\,dx \\ &=-(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}-4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \sum_{i=1}^{n} \frac{\partial \Delta f}{\partial x_{i}} \frac{\partial }{\partial x_{i}} \Biggl(\sum_{j=1}^{n}x_{j} \frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}} \Biggr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}-2\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\Delta f\sum_{i=1}^{n} \frac{ \partial ^{2}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \Biggl(\sum_{j=1}^{n}x_{j} \frac{ \partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}} \Biggr)\,dx. \end{aligned}$$

On the other hand,

$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak{I}_{2} &=-(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}-4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1} ^{n} \frac{\partial \Delta f}{\partial x_{i}} \frac{\partial }{\partial x_{i}} \biggl(x_{j}\frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}} \biggr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}-2\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\Delta f\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1}^{n} \frac{\partial ^{2}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \biggl(x_{j}\frac{ \partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}} \biggr)\,dx \\ &=-(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}-4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1} ^{n}\frac{\partial \Delta f}{\partial x_{i}} \biggl( \frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}} +x_{j}\frac{\partial ^{2}\Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}\partial x_{j}} \biggr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}-2\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\Delta f\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1}^{n} \frac{\partial ^{2}}{\partial x_{i}^{2}} \biggl(x_{j}\frac{ \partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}} \biggr)\,dx \\ &=-(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}-4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1} ^{n}\frac{\partial \Delta f}{\partial x_{i}} \biggl( \frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}} +x_{j}\frac{\partial ^{2}\Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}\partial x_{j}} \biggr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}-2\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\Delta f\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1}^{n} \frac{\partial }{\partial x_{i}} \biggl( \frac{\partial x _{j}}{\partial x_{i}} \frac{\partial \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}} +x_{j}\frac{ \partial ^{2}\bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}\partial x_{j}} \biggr)\,dx. \end{aligned}$$

Thus

$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak{I}_{2} &=-(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}-4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1} ^{n}\frac{\partial \Delta f}{\partial x_{i}} \biggl( \frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}} +x_{j}\frac{\partial ^{2}\Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}\partial x_{j}} \biggr)\,dx \\ &=-(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}-4 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\sum_{i=1}^{n} \frac{\partial \Delta f}{ \partial x_{i}} \frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}}\,dx -4 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}-2\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1} ^{n}x_{j} \biggl( \frac{\partial \Delta f}{\partial x_{i}} \frac{ \partial ^{2}\Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}\partial x_{i}} +\frac{ \partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{i}} \frac{\partial ^{2}\Delta f}{ \partial x_{j}\partial x_{i}} \biggr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}-8\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\Delta f\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1}^{n}x_{j} \frac{\partial ^{3}\bar{f}}{\partial ^{2} x_{i} \partial x_{j}}\,dx \\ &=-(n+2) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}-4 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -4 \int _{\mathbb{R} ^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}-2\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\sum_{i=1}^{n} \sum_{j=1} ^{n}x_{j} \frac{\partial }{\partial x_{j}} \biggl(\frac{\partial \Delta f}{\partial x_{i} }\frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x _{i}} \biggr)\,dx -2 \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\Delta f\sum_{j=1}^{n}x_{j} \frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}}\,dx \\ &=-(n+8) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -(n+4) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}-2\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}x\cdot \nabla \bigl\vert \nabla ( \Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\sum_{j=1} ^{n}x_{j} \biggl(\frac{\partial \Delta \bar{f}}{\partial x_{j}}\Delta f + \frac{\partial \Delta f}{\partial x_{j}}\Delta \bar{f} \biggr)\,dx \\ &=-(n+8) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -(n+4) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}\sum_{j=1}^{n}x_{j} \frac{\partial }{\partial x _{j}}(\Delta \bar{f}\Delta f)\,dx \\ &=-8 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx-(n+4) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx - \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}x\cdot \nabla \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &=-8 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx -(n+4) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx+n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx \\ &=-8 \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl\vert \nabla (\Delta f) \bigr\vert ^{2}\,dx-4 \int _{\mathbb{R} ^{n}} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{2}\,dx. \end{aligned}$$

It is this estimate that allows us to use \(L^{1}\) rather than \(L^{\infty }\)-bounds (see [32]). We have

$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak{I}_{3} &=-n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p+1}\,dx+(n+2) \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}f\Delta \bar{f}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}fx\cdot \nabla ( \Delta \bar{f})\,dx -2\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}x \cdot (f\nabla \bar{f})\,dx. \end{aligned}$$

We can choose p small enough, and it also follows from the same approach that

$$\begin{aligned} \mathfrak{I}_{3} &=-n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p+1}\,dx +(n+2) \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}f\Delta \bar{f}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}fx\cdot \nabla ( \Delta \bar{f})\,dx -\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}x \cdot (f\nabla \bar{f} +\bar{f}\nabla f )\,dx \\ &=-n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p+1}\,dx+(n+2) \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}f \Delta \bar{f}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}fx\cdot \nabla ( \Delta \bar{f})\,dx -\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}x\cdot \bigl((f \bar{f})^{p/2} \nabla (f \bar{f}) \bigr)\,dx \\ &=-n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p+1}\,dx+(n+2) \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}f\Delta \bar{f}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}fx\cdot \nabla ( \Delta \bar{f})\,dx -\frac{2}{p+1}\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}}x \cdot \nabla (f\bar{f})^{\frac{p+1}{2}}\,dx \\ &=-n \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p+1}\,dx+(n+2) \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}f\Delta \bar{f}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}fx\cdot \nabla ( \Delta \bar{f})\,dx +\frac{n}{p+1}\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p+1}\,dx \\ &=-\frac{np}{p+1} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p+1}\,dx+(n+2) \operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}f\Delta \bar{f}\,dx \\ &\quad{}+4\operatorname{Re} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \vert f \vert ^{p}fx\cdot \nabla ( \Delta \bar{f})\,dx. \end{aligned}$$

We substitute the above estimates to the right-hand side of (2.8) to get the desired result. □

Main results

In this section, we shall state and prove our main result.

We first introduce the local existence theory of the global solution for the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem (1.1).

Lemma 3.1

(Local existence and uniqueness [15])

Suppose that \(f_{0}\in \mathcal{H}^{2}\). There exist a positive real number L and a unique local solution \(f(x,t)\) of the global solution for the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem (1.1) in \(C([0,L];\mathcal{H}^{2})\). Moreover, if

$$ L_{\mathrm{max}}=\operatorname{sup}\bigl\{ {L>0: f=f(x,t)} \textit{ exists on } [0,L] \bigr\} < \infty , $$

then

$$ \lim_{t\to L_{\mathrm{max}}} \Vert f \Vert _{\mathcal{H}^{2}}=\infty . $$

Otherwise, \(L=\infty \) (global existence).

Lemma 3.2

The sets \(\mathcal{G}\) and \(\mathcal{B}\) are invariant manifolds.

Proof of Lemma 3.2

Indeed, we only prove that \(\mathcal{G}\) is invariant. \(\mathcal{B}\) is proved in a similar way. Considering the fact that \(f_{0}\in \mathcal{G}\), we obtain that \(f(x,t)\in \mathcal{G}\), where \(x\in (0,L)\).

The possibilities are as follows:

Case 1. \(f_{0}=0\). Clearly, \(f(x,t)=0\), where \(x\in [0,L)\). In a similar way we get that \(f(x,t)\equiv 0\) is also the global solution for the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem (1.1) in \(C([0,L];\mathcal{H}^{2})\). Thus \(f(x,t)\in \mathcal{G}\), where \(x\in (0,L)\).

Case 2. \(f_{0}\neq 0\). Note that from Lemma 3.1 we infer that

$$ \mathcal{P}\bigl(f(x,t)\bigr)\equiv \mathcal{P}(f_{0})< d \quad \text{for any } x\in (0,L). $$
(3.1)

Therefore, there exists \(t_{1}\in (0,L)\) such that \(\mathfrak{I}(f(x,t _{1}))=0\). Also, for any \(x\in (0,t_{1})\), \(\mathfrak{I}(f(x,t))>0\). It is easily seen that \(f(x,t_{1})\neq 0\). Suppose first that \(f(x,t_{1})=0\). Then, by the mass conservation law, we know that \(f_{0}=0\), a contraction.

Considering the definition of d, we use an argument similar to the above to get

$$ \mathcal{P}\bigl(f(x,t_{1})\bigr)\geq d, $$

which is again a contraction.

Thus we have \(f(x,t)\in \mathcal{G}\), where \(t\in (0,L)\). □

Theorem 3.1

Let \(f_{0}\in \mathcal{G}\). Then the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem of Schrödinger equation (1.1) exists, and it satisfies the following inequality:

$$ \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert \nabla f \vert ^{3}+ \vert f \vert ^{3}+ \vert \Delta f \vert ^{3} \bigr)\,dx \leq \frac{dpn}{np+1}. $$

Proof of Theorem 3.1

It follows from a standard argument by Lemma 3.1 that the existence result of a local solution of the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem of Schrödinger equation (1.1) can be extended globally (see [33]).

Taking \(f_{0}\in \mathcal{G}\), for any \(x\in [0,L)\), by Lemma 3.2 and Theorem 2.1, it is easy to verify that

$$\begin{aligned} d&>\mathcal{P}(f)= \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \biggl(\frac{1}{3} \vert f \vert ^{3}+ \frac{1}{3} \vert \nabla f \vert ^{3}+ \frac{1}{3} \vert \Delta f \vert ^{3}-\frac{1}{p+1} \vert f \vert ^{p+1} \biggr)\,dx \\ &= \biggl(\frac{1}{3}-\frac{p+1}{np} \biggr) \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert f \vert ^{3}+ \vert \nabla f \vert ^{3}+ \vert \Delta f \vert ^{3} \bigr)\,dx \\ &\quad{}+\frac{p+1}{np} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \biggl( \vert f \vert ^{3}+ \vert \nabla f \vert ^{3}+ \vert \Delta f \vert ^{3}- \frac{np}{p+1} \vert f \vert ^{p+1} \biggr)\,dx \\ &\geq \frac{np+1}{np} \int _{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \bigl( \vert f \vert ^{3}+ \vert \nabla f \vert ^{3} + \vert \Delta f \vert ^{3} \bigr)\,dx, \end{aligned}$$

as desired. □

Conclusions

This paper was concerned with the global existence of solutions for the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem of the Schrödinger equation. Firstly, based on the Schrödinger approximation technique and the theory of a family of potential wells, the authors obtained the invariant sets and vacuum isolating of global solutions including the critical case. Then, the global existence of solutions and the stability of equilibrium points were discussed. Finally, the global asymptotic stability of the unique positive equilibrium point of the system was proved by applying the Leray–Schauder alternative fixed point theorem.

Change history

  • 19 January 2021

    This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13661-021-01488-8

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The work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China (No. 2019D01A04).

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Liu, Z. RETRACTED ARTICLE:Existence of global solutions for the semilinear nonlocal fractional Cauchy problem of the Schrödinger equation. Bound Value Probl 2020, 16 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13661-020-01328-1

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Keywords

  • Global solution
  • Schrödinger equation
  • Fractional Cauchy problem