 Research
 Open Access
 Published:
Correctness conditions for highorder differential equations with unbounded coefficients
Boundary Value Problems volume 2021, Article number: 47 (2021)
Abstract
We give some sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the solution of a higherorder linear differential equation with unbounded coefficients in the Hilbert space. We obtain some estimates for the weighted norms of the solution and its derivatives. Using these estimates, we show the conditions for the compactness of some integral operators associated with the resolvent.
Introduction and formulation of the main results
We consider the following equation:
where \(k=1, 2, \ldots \) , \(x\in {R}= (\infty ,+\infty )\), \(f (x )\in L_{2} :=L_{2} (R )\). In what follows, we assume that \(\rho (x )>0\) is (\(k+1 \)) times, and \(r_{j}=r_{j} (x )\) (\(j=\overline{1,k1}\)) is (\(kj \)) times continuously differentiable, and \(r_{k}=r_{k} (x )\) is a continuous functions. Equation (1) is given in an infinite domain, and its coefficients can be unbounded functions. Hence, it is a singular differential equation.
Let \(L_{0} \) be a differential operator from \(C_{{\mathrm{0}}}^{ (k+1 )} (R )\) to \(L_{2} \), which is defined by the following formula:
Since the coefficients ρ and \(r_{j} \) (\(j=\overline{0,k} \)) are smooth functions, the operator \(L_{0} \) is a closable operator (see [1, Sect. 6 of Chap. 2]). We denote by L the closure of \(L_{0} \).
A function \(y (x )\) is called a solution of differential equation (1) if there exists a sequence \(\{ y_{m} (x) \} _{m=1}^{\infty } \subseteq C_{0}^{ (k+1 )} (R )\) such that \(y_{m} \to y\) and \(Ly_{m} \to f\) in the norm of \(L_{2} \) as \(m\to \infty \). It is clear that \(y\in L_{2} \).
The following more general equation
can be reduced to equation (1). Indeed, set \(\rho (x )=\sqrt{\rho _{0} (x )} \) and \(r_{0} =\tilde{r}_{0} \rho \rho '\), then
this is the lefthand side of equation (1).
We study equation (1) in the case that the intermediate coefficients \(r_{j} (x )\) (\(j=\overline{1,k1}\)) can be unbounded and their growth do not depend on the extreme coefficients \(\rho _{0} (x )\) and \(r_{k} (x )\). When \(r_{j} (x )\) (\(j=\overline{1,k1}\)) are bounded or they are unbounded and are controlled by the extreme coefficients \(\rho _{0} (x )\) and \(r_{k} (x )\), this equation has been studied systematically. For more details, see [2–4].
A number of problems of stochastic analysis and stochastic differential equations lead to singular elliptic equations and ordinary differential equations and their systems with unbounded intermediate coefficients. Specific representatives of such equations are the stationary equations of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck (see [5]) and Fokker–Planck–Kolmogorov (see [6]). In the case \(k=1\), equation (1) is the simplest model of Brownian motion of particles with a covariance matrix determined by the function \(\rho (x )\), and \(r_{0} (x )\) is called the drift coefficient.
For applications of equation (1) to various practical processes, it is important to investigate the correctness of equation (1) with coefficients \(\rho (x )\) and \(r_{j} (x )\) (\(j=\overline{0,k1} \)) from wider classes. In the case that the intermediate coefficients do not depend on the potential and the diffusion coefficient and can grow as a linear function, the correctness of the secondorder singular elliptic equations was studied in [7–10]. The correctness conditions for the secondorder and thirdorder onedimensional differential equations with rapidly growing intermediate coefficients were obtained in [11–16]. However, in [11–16] the condition of weak oscillation is imposed on the intermediate and senior coefficients. In this paper, sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution \(y (x )\) of (1) are obtained. Moreover, for the solution, we proved the following inequality:
Using this estimate, we obtained compactness conditions for operators \(\theta (x )L^{1} \) and \(\theta (x )\frac{d^{\alpha } }{dx^{\alpha } } L^{1} \) (\(\alpha =\overline{1,k1}\)).
The difference between this result and the results in [7–16] is that equation (1) is high order, and the coefficients \(r_{j} (x )\) (\(j=\overline{0,k1} \)) can grow rapidly, and all coefficients can be fluctuating (see Example 4.1). In addition, the leading coefficient can tend to zero at infinity. In other words, the cases of some degenerate equations are covered. Note that the criteria for the existence of positive periodic solutions for differential equations with indefinite singularity and pseudo almost periodic solutions of an iterative functional differential equations, respectively, were found in [17] and [18].
We introduce the following notation:
where \(u=u (x )\) and \(v=v (x )\ne 0\) are real continuous functions, s is a positive integer number. The following statements are the main results of this paper.
Theorem 1.1
Let \(\rho (x )>0\) be (\(k+1\)) times, \(r_{j} (x )\) (\(j=\overline{1,k1}\)) be (\(kj\)) times continuously differentiable, \(r_{k} (x )\) be a continuous function, and the following conditions be satisfied:

(a)
\(r_{0} \ge 1\), \(\gamma _{1,\sqrt{r_{0} } ,k} <\infty \);

(b)
there exists a point \(x_{0} \in R\) such that \(\sup_{x< x_{0} } [\rho (x ) \exp \int _{x_{0} }^{x} \frac{r_{0} (t )}{\rho ^{2} (t )}\,dt ]< \infty \);

(c)
\(\max_{j=\overline{1,k}} \gamma _{r_{j} ,\sqrt{r_{0} } ,j} <\infty \).
Then, for any \(f\in L_{2} \), equation (1) has a unique solution y and
holds, where \(\Vert \cdot \Vert _{2} \) is the norm of \(L_{2} \).
Changing variable in Theorem 1.1, we obtain the following result.
Theorem 1.2
Let \(\rho (x )>0\) be (\(k+1\)) times, \(r_{j} (x )\) (\(j=\overline{1,k1}\)) be (\(kj\)) times continuously differentiable, and \(r_{k} (x )\) be a continuous function, and the following conditions be satisfied:

(a)
respectively, \(r_{0} (x)\le 1\), \(\gamma _{1,\sqrt{r_{0} } ,k} <\infty \);

(b)
there exists a point \(x_{1} \in R\) such that \(\sup_{x>x_{1} } [\rho (x ) \exp \int _{x_{1} }^{x} \frac{r_{0} (t )}{\rho ^{2} (t )}\,dt ]< \infty \);

(c)
\(\max_{j=\overline{1,k}} \gamma _{r_{j} ,\sqrt{r_{0} } ,j} <\infty \).
Then, for any \(f\in L_{2} \), equation (1) has a unique solution y and
holds.
Theorem 1.3
Suppose that the coefficients ρ and \(r_{j}\) (\(j=\overline{0,k} \)) satisfy the conditions of Theorem 1.1or Theorem 1.2and the function \(\theta (x )\) is continuous, and let for some \(j\in [1, k ]\) the equality
hold. Then \(\theta (x)\frac{d^{kj} }{dx^{kj} } L^{1} \) (\(\theta (x)L^{1} \) for \(j=k\)) is the compact operator in \(L_{2} \).
Some auxiliary statements
Let \(C_{+}^{(s)} (0,+\infty )= \{ m(x)\in C^{ (s )} (0,+\infty ):\exists \tau >0 m (x )=0 \ \forall x>\tau \} \) (\(s\in N \)). The next lemma is a particular case of Theorem 2.1 in [19].
Lemma 2.1
Suppose that the functions \(g(x)\), \(v(x)\ne 0\) (\(x>0\)) are continuous, and for a natural number s,
holds. Then, for any \(y\in C_{+}^{(s)} (0,+\infty )\),
holds. Moreover, if C is the smallest constant for which inequality (5) is valid, then
where
Remark 2.1
If \(s=1\) and C is the smallest constant for which inequality (5) is valid, then, instead of (6), the inequalities \(\tilde{T}_{ g, v, s} \le C\le 2\tilde{T}_{g, v, s} \) hold (see [20]).
Lemma 2.2
Suppose that the functions \(u(x)\), \(h(x)\ne 0\) (\(x<0\)) are continuous and \(\tilde{M}_{u,h,s} =\sup_{x<0} M_{u,h,s} (x) <\infty \) for a natural number s. Then, for any \(y\in C_{}^{(s)} (\infty , 0 )= \{ \eta \in C^{ (s )} (\infty , 0 ): \exists \tau <0\eta (x )=0 \ \forall x<\tau \} \),
holds. Moreover, if \(C_{1} \) is the smallest constant for which (7) is valid, then
where
Proof
Changing variable in Lemma 2.1, we obtain the desired result. □
Remark 2.2
If \(s=1\) and \(C_{1} \) is the smallest constant for which inequality (7) is valid, then the inequalities \(\tilde{M}_{u,h,s} \le C_{1} \le 2\tilde{M}_{u,h,s} \) hold.
The following statement is proved by application of Lemmas 2.1 and 2.2.
Lemma 2.3
Let continuous functions \(u(x)\), \(v(x)\ne 0\) (\(x \in R\)) satisfy the conditions \(\tilde{T}_{u,v,s} <\infty \), \(\tilde{M}_{u,v,s} <\infty \) for some natural number s. Then, for any \(y\in C_{0}^{ (s )} (R )\),
Moreover, if \(C_{2} \) is the smallest constant for which inequality (8) is valid, then
Remark 2.3
If \(s=1\) and \(C_{2} \) is the smallest constant for which inequality (8) is valid, then
On a twoterm differential operator
Let \(l_{0} \) be a differential operator from the set \(C_{0}^{ (k+1 )} (R )\) to \(L_{2} \), which is defined by
We denote its closure by l.
Lemma 3.1
Let \(\rho (x )>0\) and the function \(r_{0} (x )\) satisfy condition (a) of Theorem 1.1. Then the operator l is invertible, and for \(y\in D (l )\), the inequality
holds.
Proof
Let \(y\in C_{0}^{ (k+1 )} (R )\). Integrating by parts, we get that
By Hölder’s inequality,
Hence,
According to Lemma 2.3, we have that
Therefore,
where \(C=2 \gamma _{1,\sqrt{r_{0} } ,k} +1\).
Now let \(y\in D (l )\). Then there is a sequence \(\{ y_{m} \} \subseteq C_{0}^{ (k+1 )} (R )\) such that \(\Vert y_{m} y \Vert _{2} \to 0\), \(\Vert l_{0} y_{m} ly \Vert _{2} \to 0\) as \(m\to \infty \). So, it follows that
According to (11), we have
We denote by \(W_{2,r_{0} }^{k} (R )\) the completion of \((C_{0}^{ (k )} (R ), \Vert \cdot \Vert _{\mathop{W}_{2,r_{0} }^{k} } )\), where \(\Vert y \Vert _{W_{2,r_{0}}^{k} } = \Vert \sqrt{r_{0} } y^{ (k )} \Vert _{2} + \Vert y \Vert _{2} \). From (12) and (13) it follows that \(\{ y_{m} \} \) is a Cauchy sequence in the space \(W_{2,r_{0} }^{k} (R )\). Consequently, there is \(y\in W_{2,r_{0} }^{k} (R )\) such that \(\{ y_{m} \} \) converges to y in the norm of \(W_{2,r_{0} }^{k} (R )\). Using (11) and (12), we obtain that for y inequality (9) holds. According to (9), l is invertible. Similarly, by (10),
□
Inequality (9) gives \(D (l )\subseteq W_{2,r_{0} }^{k} (R )\). For \(y\in D (l )\), set \(z=y^{ (k )} \) and \(\tilde{L}z=\rho (x ) (\rho (x )z )^{{'} } +r_{0} (x )z\).
Lemma 3.2
Suppose that \(\rho (x )\) and \(r_{0} (x )\) satisfy the conditions of Lemma 3.1. Then L̃ is a closed operator in \(L_{2} \).
Proof
Let \(\{ z_{n} \} _{n=1}^{\infty } \subseteq D (\tilde{L} )\) such that \(\Vert z_{n} z \Vert _{2} \to 0\), \(\Vert \tilde{L}z_{n} w \Vert _{2} \to 0\) as \(n\to \infty \). According to our choice, there is a sequence \(\{ y_{n} \} _{n=1}^{\infty } \subseteq D (l )\) such that \(y_{n}^{ (k )} =z_{n} \) and
By Lemma 3.1, \(y_{n} \) (\(n\in N\)) satisfies (9). Hence, \(\{ y_{n} \} _{n=1}^{\infty } \subseteq W_{2,r_{0} }^{k} (R )\) is a Cauchy sequence. Therefore, there exists \(y\in L_{2} \) such that
So
Since the operator l and the generalized differentiation operator are closed, we have \(y\in D (l )\), \(z=y^{ (k )} \in D (\tilde{L} )\) and
Thus, L̃ is a closed operator. □
Lemma 3.3
If functions \(\rho (x )\) and \(r_{0} (x )\) satisfy the conditions of Lemma 3.1, then
The proof follows from the following equalities:
Lemma 3.4
Suppose that the functions \(\rho (x )\) and \(r_{0} (x )\) satisfy conditions (a) and (b) of Theorem 1.1. Then l is invertible and its inverse \(l^{1} \) is bounded.
Proof
By Lemma 3.1, l has an inverse \(l^{1} \). Since l is a closed operator, using (9), we deduce that \(R (l )\) is a closed set. By Lemma 3.3, it suffices to prove \(R (\tilde{L} )=L_{2} \). If \(R (\tilde{L} )\ne L_{2} \), then, according to [1, p. 284], there is a nonzero element \(v (x )\in L_{2} \) such that
(where \(\tilde{L}^{*} \) is the adjoint of L̃) for any \(z\in D (\tilde{L} )\). Since \(C_{0}^{(1)} (R)\subseteq D (\tilde{L} )\), the set \(D (\tilde{L} )\) is dense in \(L_{2} \). Therefore,
This implies that \(v(x)\) is continuously differentiable and
Since \(v\ne 0\), we have \(C\ne 0\). Taking into account condition b) of Theorem 1.1, we have that \(\vert v (x ) \vert \ge \frac{C}{K} >0\) for all \(x< x_{0} \), where
Hence \(v\notin L_{2} \). This is a contradiction. □
Remark 3.1
If in Lemma 3.4 the condition \(r_{0} \ge 1\) is replaced with the condition \(r_{0} \ge \delta >0\), then the lemma remains valid.
Proofs of the main results
Proof of Theorem 1.1
Set \(x=mt\), \(\hat{y} (t )=y (mt )\), \(\hat{\rho } (t )=\rho (mt )\), \(\hat{r}_{j} (t )=r_{j} (mt ) \) (\(j= \overline{0,k}\)), \(\hat{f} (t )=f (mt )m^{ (k+1 )} \) (\(m>0\)). Then equation (1) changes to
Let l̂ be a closure of \(\hat{l}_{0} \), where \(\hat{l}_{0}: D(\hat{l}_{0} )\to L_{2} \) is defined by
By the conditions of the theorem, we can choose a number m so that
Then, according to condition c) of the theorem, Lemma 2.3, and estimate (14), we obtain that, for any \(\hat{y}\in D (\hat{l} )\),
By (19) and Lemma 3.1, we get that
According to Lemma 3.4 and Remark 3.1, the operator l̂ is invertible, and its inverse \(\hat{l}^{1} \) is defined on the whole \(L_{2} \). Then, by inequality (20) and the wellknown statement on small perturbations [21, Chap. 4, Theorem 1.16], the following operator
is also closed and invertible, and the inverse operator \(P_{m}^{1} \) is defined on the whole space \(L_{2} \). So, it follows that, for each \(\hat{f}\in L_{2} \), \(\hat{y}=P_{m}^{1} \hat{f}\in D (P_{m} )\) and ŷ is a solution of equation (17). By (19), we deduce that
Using the substitution \(t=m^{1} x\), we obtain that the function \(y (x )=\hat{y} (\frac{1}{m} x )\) is a solution to equation (1). Inequality (21) implies (3). □
Proof of Theorem 1.3
Let the conditions of Theorem 1.1 be satisfied. Without loss of generality, we assume that \(\theta (x)\) is a real function. Let
By Theorem 1.1 and (3), for any \(y\in C_{0}^{(k+1)} (R)\): \(\Vert Ly \Vert _{2} \le 1\), we obtain
These inequalities are valid for any \(y\in D(L)\) such that \(\Vert Ly \Vert _{2} \le 1\), since L is a closed operator. Therefore, \(Q_{j} \) is bounded in \(L_{2} \). Let us show that \(Q_{j} \) is compact in \(L_{2} \). By the Frechet–Kolmogorov theorem, it suffices to show that, for each \(\varepsilon >0\), there is a number \(N_{\varepsilon } \) such that, for any \(y\in C_{0}^{(k+1)} (R)\), \(\Vert Ly \Vert _{2} \le 1\), and \(N\ge N_{\varepsilon } \), the following inequality
holds. We have that
According to Lemma 2.1,
Similarly, using Lemma 2.2, we obtain
Set
By virtue of (23), (24), (25), and (3), we have that
Taking into account this inequality and condition (4), we see that the number \(N_{\varepsilon } \) for given \(\varepsilon >0\) can be chosen so that, for all \(y\in C_{0}^{(k+1)} (R)\), \(\Vert Ly \Vert _{2} \le 1\), and \(N: N\ge N_{\varepsilon } \), inequality (22) holds. □
Example 4.1
We consider the equation
where
We denote by L̃ the closure of the operator \(\tilde{L}_{0}\) \(( D(\tilde{L}_{0})= C_{0}^{(4)} (R) )\) corresponding to (26). It is easy to check that \(\gamma _{1,\sqrt{r} ,3} <\infty \), \(\gamma _{g, \sqrt{r}, 2} <\infty \) and
hold. Hence, by Theorem 1.1, equation (26) has a unique solution for any \(f(x)\in L_{2} \). By direct calculation we obtain that
Therefore, by Theorem 1.3, the operators \((x +1)^{\alpha } \tilde{L}^{1} \) and \((x +1)^{\beta } \frac{d}{dx} \tilde{L}^{1} \) are compact in \(L_{2} \) for \(\alpha <1 \) and \(\beta <2 \), where \(\tilde{L}^{1}\) is the inverse of L̃. Note that the coefficients of (26) are fluctuating and \(\rho (x)\) tends to zero as \(x\to +\infty \) and is unbounded as \(x\to \infty \).
Example 4.2
We consider the following higherorder equation:
where \(x\in R\), k and s are natural numbers, and \(f\in L_{2} \). Let l̃ be the closure of the operator \(\tilde{l}_{0}\) with \(D(\tilde{l}_{0})= C_{0}^{(k+1)} (R)\). Direct calculations show that all conditions of Theorem 1.2 are satisfied. Hence, equation (27) is uniquely solvable and its solution y satisfies the following estimate:
Moreover, for continuous functions \(\theta _{j} (x)\) (\(j= \overline{1, k}\)) such that \(\vert \theta _{j} (x) \vert \le (1+x^{2} )^{\omega _{j} } \) with \(\omega _{j} < k\frac{j}{2} \), the equality
holds. Then, according to Theorem 1.3, the operators \((1+x^{2} )^{\alpha } \tilde{l}^{1} \) (\(\alpha <\frac{k}{2} \)) and \(\theta _{j} (x)\frac{d^{kj} }{dx^{kj} } \tilde{l}^{1} \) (\(j=\overline{1,k1}\)) are compact in \(L_{2}\), where \(\tilde{l}^{1}\) is the inverse of l̃.
Availability of data and materials
Not applicable.
References
Yosida, K.: Functional Analysis. Springer, Berlin (1995)
Naimark, M.: Linear Differential Operators. Nauka, Moscow (1969)
Reed, M., Simon, B.: Methods of Modern Mathematical Physics: Harmonic Analysis, SelfAdjointness, vol. 2. Mir, Moscow (1978) (in Russian)
Fedoruk, M.V.: Asymptotic Analysis: Linear Ordinary Differential Equations. Springer, Berlin (1993)
Ornstein, G.E., Uhlenbeck, L.S.: On the theory of Brownian motion. Phys. Rev. 36, 823–841 (1930)
Bogachev, V.I., Krylov, N.V., Rökner, M., Shaposhnikov, S.V.: Fokker–Planck–Kolmogorov Equations. Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, vol. 207. Am. Math. Soc., Providence (2015)
Fornaro, S., Lorenzi, L.: Generation results for elliptic operators with unbounded diffusion coefficients in \(L_{p} \) and \(C_{b} \)spaces. Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 18(4), 747–772 (2007)
Hieber, M., Sawada, O.: The Navier–Stokes equations in \(R^{n} \) with linearly growing initial data. Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 175, 269–285 (2005)
Metafune, G., Pallara, D., Vespri, V.: \(L_{p}\)estimates for a class of elliptic operators with unbounded coefficients in \(R^{n}\). Houst. J. Math. 31, 605–620 (2005)
Hieber, M., Lorenzi, L., Prüss, J., Rhandi, A., Schnaubelt, R.: Global properties of generalized Ornstein–Uhlenbeck operators on \(L_{p}(R^{N}, R^{N})\) with more than linearly growing coefficients. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 350(1), 100–121 (2009)
Ospanov, K.N., Akhmetkaliyeva, R.D.: Some inequalities for second order differential operators with unbounded drift. Eurasian Math. J. 6(2), 63–71 (2015)
Ospanov, K.N.: \(L_{1}\)maximal regularity for quasilinear second order differential equation with damped term. Electron. J. Qual. Theory Differ. Equ. 2015, 39 (2015)
Ospanov, K.N.: Maximal \(L_{p}\)regularity for a secondorder differential equation with unbounded intermediate coefficient. Electron. J. Qual. Theory Differ. Equ. 2019, 65 (2019)
Ospanov, K., Yesbayev, A.: Solvability and maximal regularity results for a differential equation with diffusion coefficient. Turk. J. Math. 44(4), 1304–1316 (2020)
Ospanov, K.N., Yeskabylova, Z.B., Bekjan, T.N.: The solvability results for the thirdorder singular nonlinear differential equation. Eurasian Math. J. 10(4), 84–90 (2019)
Ospanov, K.N., Eskabylova, Z.B., Beisenova, D.R.: Maximal regularity estimates for a higher order differential equation with the fluctuating coefficients. Eurasian Math. J. 10(2), 65–74 (2019)
Lu, S., Yu, X.: Periodic solutions for second order differential equations with indefinite singularities. Adv. Nonlinear Anal. 9(1), 994–1007 (2020)
Zhao, H.Y.: Pseudo almost periodic solutions for a class of differential equation with delays depending on state. Adv. Nonlinear Anal. 9(1), 1251–1258 (2020)
Apyshev, O., Otelbaev, M.: On the spectrum of a class of differential operators and some embedding theorems. Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Mat. 43(4), 739–764 (1979) (in Russian)
Muckenhoupt, B.: Hardy’s inequality with weights. Stud. Math. 44, 31–38 (1972)
Kato, T.: Perturbation Theory for Linear Operators. Classics in Mathematics. Springer, Berlin (1995)
Acknowledgements
The author expresses his sincere gratitude to anonymous reviewers for helpful comments, which helped to improve the quality of the manuscript.
Funding
This research was funded by the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Grant No. AP08856281 “Nonlinear elliptic equations with unbounded coefficients”).
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Contributions
The author read and approved the final manuscript.
Corresponding author
Ethics declarations
Competing interests
The author declares that they have no competing interests.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
About this article
Cite this article
Ospanov, K.N. Correctness conditions for highorder differential equations with unbounded coefficients. Bound Value Probl 2021, 47 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13661021015265
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13661021015265
MSC
 34B40
 47E05
Keywords
 Higherorder differential equation
 Unbounded coefficients
 Unique solvability
 Estimate of the norm of a solution
 Compactness of the resolvent