# A first-order adjoint and a second-order hybrid method for an energy output least-squares elastography inverse problem of identifying tumor location

- Nathan D Cahill
^{1}, - Baasansuren Jadamba
^{1}, - Akhtar A Khan
^{1}Email author, - Miguel Sama
^{2}and - Brian C Winkler
^{1}

**2013**:263

https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-2770-2013-263

© Cahill et al.; licensee Springer. 2013

**Received: **14 August 2013

**Accepted: **5 November 2013

**Published: **2 December 2013

## Abstract

In this paper we investigate the elastography inverse problem of identifying cancerous tumors within the human body. From a mathematical standpoint, the elastography inverse problem consists of identifying the variable Lamé parameter *μ* in a system of linear elasticity where the underlying object exhibits nearly incompressible behavior. This problem is subsequently posed as an optimization problem using an energy output least-squares (EOLS) functional, but the nonlinearity that arises makes the computation of the EOLS functional’s derivatives challenging. We employ an adjoint method for the computation of the gradient, something shown to be an efficient method in recent studies, and also give a parallelizable hybrid method for the computation of the EOLS functional’s second derivative. Detailed discrete formulas and nontrivial computational examples are provided to show the feasibility of both the adjoint and hybrid approaches. Furthermore, all results are given in the framework of a general saddle point problem allowing easy adaptation to numerous other inverse problems.

**MSC:**35R30, 65N30.

## Keywords

## 1 Introduction

*f*is the applied body force,

*n*is the unit outward normal, and

is the linearized strain tensor. The resulting stress tensor *σ* in the stress-strain law (1b) is obtained under the assumption that the elastic object is isotropic and the displacement is small enough so that a linear relationship holds. The Lamé parameters *μ* and *λ* quantify the elastic properties of the material. (In the following, for simplicity we set $g=0$.)

In this work our objective is to investigate the elastography (also known as elasticity imaging) inverse problem of locating cancerous tumors within the human body. This inverse problem consists of identifying the variable parameter *μ* in (1a)-(1d) from a measurement of the displacement field *u*. Conversely, the direct problem for (1a)-(1d) is to find the displacement *u* when function *h*, the variable coefficients *μ* and *λ*, and the body force *f* are all known. The underlying idea is that differences in molecular makeup as well as microscopic and macroscopic structure result in significant differences in the stiffness of living soft tissue (see [1]). Moreover, changes in tissue stiffness generally correlate with changes in pathological state, with many cancers appearing as hard nodules within the surrounding softer tissue. In a clinical setting, measurements of displacement in human tissue can be obtained using ultrasound and this can then serve as data in the context of the elastography inverse problem. By solving this inverse problem and recovering *μ*, tumor locations can be identified using the marked differences in elastic properties between the healthy and unhealthy tissue. Additionally, we note that in the elastography inverse problem the human body is treated as a nearly incompressible object where the parameter *λ* is significantly large and hence only the parameter *μ* is sought.

Although numerous authors have contributed to using the elasticity properties of soft tissue as a tool to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue, Raghavan and Yagle [2] were among the first authors to realize that this study can be best done in an inverse problem framework using measured strains and the equations of equilibrium to recover elasticity (*cf.* (1a)-(1d)). Since then, many studies have been devoted to investigating various aspects of the elastography inverse problem and the interested reader is referred to [3–8] and the cited reference therein. Additionally, a detailed account of the recent developments in elastography inverse problem can be found in the survey article by Doyley [1]. See also [9–21] and the cited references therein for more details.

One of the main technical challenges in the study of this inverse problem stems from the fact that the human body is treated as a nearly incompressible object. That is, the elasticity modulus *λ* is significantly large (and particularly $\lambda \gg \mu $), rendering classical finite element methods ineffective due to the so-called locking effect. In the literature, several approaches have been proposed to overcome the locking effect, and in this work we employ the mixed finite elements strategy.

In the following, we provide the necessary details for the transformation of system (1a)-(1d) into a saddle point problem to which the mixed finite element approach can be applied.

*A*and

*B*can be denoted by $A\cdot B$. That is, for $2\times 2$ tensors

*A*and

*B*, we have

where the pressure *p* is also an unknown.

where $Q={L}^{2}(\mathrm{\Omega})$ and $\stackrel{\u02c6}{V}=\{\overline{v}\in {H}^{1}(\mathrm{\Omega})\times {H}^{1}(\mathrm{\Omega}):\overline{v}=0\text{on}{\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{1}\}$.

For the saddle point formulation, the Babuška-Brezzi condition provides guidance in the choice of finite element spaces necessary for a stable numerical approximation (see [22]).

The primary objective of this work is to develop an efficient computational framework for the elastography inverse problem. For this we employ an adjoint approach for the derivative computation of a recently proposed energy output least-squares (EOLS) functional [23]. We recall that Oberai *et al.* [24] used the adjoint approach to compute efficiently the gradient of the output least-squares functional. Inspired by Tortorelli and Michaleris [25], we also devise a hybrid method for an efficient computation of the second-order derivative of the EOLS functional. In this direction, we would also like to draw attention to an interesting paper by Cioacaa, Alexea, and Sandua [26] where a second-order adjoint method is studied. All the results and formulas given are for a general saddle point problem and hence can easily be adapted to a wide range of inverse problems for variational problems (see [27]). In the derivation of the adjoint formulas, we do not include the regularization functional while considering the EOLS functional. However, we use a smooth regularizer for the identification of a smooth parameter and a BV regularizer for the identification of discontinuous coefficients.

## 2 Optimization approach for inverse problems in saddle point problems

*Q*be real Hilbert spaces, let

*B*be a real Banach space, and let

*A*be a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of

*B*. Here

*B*is the coefficient/parameter space and

*A*is the set of all admissible coefficients. Let $a:B\times \stackrel{\u02c6}{V}\times \stackrel{\u02c6}{V}\to \mathbb{R}$ be a trilinear map which we assume to be symmetric with respect to the second and third arguments. That is, for every $\ell \in B$ and for all $\overline{u},\overline{v}\in \stackrel{\u02c6}{V}$, we have $a(\ell ,\overline{u},\overline{v})=a(\ell ,\overline{v},\overline{u})$. Let $b:\stackrel{\u02c6}{V}\times Q\to \mathbb{R}$ be a bilinear form, let $c:Q\times Q\to \mathbb{R}$ be a symmetric bilinear form, and let $m:\stackrel{\u02c6}{V}\to \mathbb{R}$ be a linear and continuous map. We assume that there are positive constants ${\kappa}_{1}$, ${\kappa}_{2}$, ${\varsigma}_{1}$, ${\varsigma}_{2}$, and ${\kappa}_{0}$ such that the following inequalities hold:

**Remark 2.1** We remark that for the subsequent development of our approach, it suffices to assume that *A* is a closed and convex set of admissible parameters. Most commonly, it is chosen as the set of box-constraints. In some works, the space in which *A* resides is required to be compactly embedded in the solution space (see [28–31]). In our discrete examples, we have used linear elements to approximate the imposed box-constraints.

Given all the data, the direct problem in this setting is to find $(\overline{u},p)$. However, our focus is on the inverse problem of finding a parameter $\ell \in A$ that makes (8a)-(8b) true for a measurement $(\overline{z},\stackrel{\u02c6}{z})$ of $(\overline{u},p)$.

*μ*in the system of incompressible linear elasticity can be deduced by setting:

where $V=\stackrel{\u02c6}{V}\times Q$, $z=(\overline{z},\stackrel{\u02c6}{z})\in V$ is the measured data, and $u(\ell )=(\overline{u}(\ell ),p(\ell ))\in V$ is the solution of (8a)-(8b) corresponding to *ℓ*.

*ℓ*is the one that solves the following optimization problem: Find $\overline{\ell}\in A$ such that

where $z=(\overline{z},\stackrel{\u02c6}{z})$ is the measured data and $u(\ell )=(\overline{u}(\ell ),p(\ell ))$ is the solution of (8a)-(8b) corresponding to *ℓ*.

Clearly, to solve an optimization problem with the above objective functional, we need to compute its derivative which, in turn, requires us to compute the derivative of the solution map. It is well known that one of the most challenging aspects in the study of inverse problems is in finding an efficient computation of the derivative of the solution map. We will now develop an adjoint method for the computation of the first derivative of the EOLS functional and then a new hybrid method for the computation of the functional’s second derivative.

For every $\ell \in A$, the map $\ell \to S(\ell )=(\overline{u}(\ell ),p(\ell ))$ is well defined and single-valued. The following result for the differentiability of *S*, which was announced in [23] without a proof, will be needed.

**Theorem 2.1**

*For each*

*ℓ*

*in the interior of*

*A*, $u=u(\ell )=(\overline{u}(\ell ),p(\ell ))$

*is infinitely differentiable at*

*ℓ*.

- 1.
*Given**u*,*the first derivative*$\delta u=(\delta \overline{u},\delta p)=(D\overline{u}(\ell )\delta \ell ,Dp(\ell )\delta \ell )$*is the unique solution of the saddle point problem*:$a(\ell ,\delta \overline{u},\overline{v})+b(\overline{v},\delta p)=-a(\delta \ell ,\overline{u},\overline{v})\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\mathit{\text{for every}}\overline{v}\in \stackrel{\u02c6}{V},$(12a)$b(\delta \overline{u},q)-c(\delta p,q)=0\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\mathit{\text{for every}}q\in Q.$(12b) - 2.
*The second*-*order derivative*${\delta}^{2}u=({\delta}^{2}\overline{u},{\delta}^{2}p)=({D}^{2}\overline{u}(\ell )(\delta {\ell}_{1},\delta {\ell}_{2}),{D}^{2}p(\ell )(\delta {\ell}_{1},\delta {\ell}_{2}))$*is the unique solution of the saddle point problem*$\begin{array}{c}a(\ell ,{\delta}^{2}\overline{u},\overline{v})+b(\overline{v},{\delta}^{2}p)=-a(\delta {\ell}_{2},D\overline{u}(\ell )\delta {\ell}_{1},\overline{v})\hfill \\ \phantom{a(\ell ,{\delta}^{2}\overline{u},\overline{v})+b(\overline{v},{\delta}^{2}p)=}-a(\delta {\ell}_{1},D\overline{u}(\ell )\delta {\ell}_{2},\overline{v})\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\mathit{\text{for every}}\overline{v}\in \stackrel{\u02c6}{V},\hfill \end{array}$(13a)$b({\delta}^{2}\overline{u},q)-c({\delta}^{2}p,q)=0\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\mathit{\text{for every}}q\in Q.$(13b)

*Proof*We define a map $G:A\times \stackrel{\u02c6}{V}\to {\stackrel{\u02c6}{V}}^{\ast}\times {Q}^{\ast}$ by $G(\ell ,(\overline{u},p))=(a(\ell ,\overline{u})+b(p)-m,b(\overline{u})-c(p))$, where ${\stackrel{\u02c6}{V}}^{\ast}$ and ${Q}^{\ast}$ are the duals of $\stackrel{\u02c6}{V}$ and

*Q*, and $a(\ell ,\overline{u})$, $b(p)$, and $c(p)$ are the associated dual elements given by the Riesz theorem. Then saddle point problem (8a)-(8b) is equivalent to the following implicit equation:

*G*is infinitely differentiable and the partial derivative with respect to variable $u=(\overline{u},p)$ is given by

By [[22], Proposition 4], the map ${D}_{u}G(\ell ,(\overline{u},p)):A\times \stackrel{\u02c6}{V}\to {\stackrel{\u02c6}{V}}^{\ast}\times {Q}^{\ast}$ is an isomorphism. Therefore, using the implicit function theorem, the map $u=u(\ell )$ is infinitely differentiable at any *ℓ* in the interior of *A*.

which is (12b). Consequently, (12a) and (12b) characterize the first derivative.

which in conjunction with (13b) forms the corresponding saddle point whose unique solution characterizes the second derivative ${D}^{2}u({\stackrel{\u02c6}{\ell}}_{1},{\stackrel{\u02c6}{\ell}}_{2})=({D}^{2}\overline{u}({\stackrel{\u02c6}{\ell}}_{1},{\stackrel{\u02c6}{\ell}}_{2}),{D}^{2}p({\stackrel{\u02c6}{\ell}}_{1},{\stackrel{\u02c6}{\ell}}_{2}))$. □

## 3 An adjoint and a hybrid method for the energy output least squares

where ${D}_{\ell}$ stands for the partial derivative with respect to *ℓ*.

*v*to avoid the computation of

*δu*. By a direct computation and taking into account (18), we obtain

which exists, by standard arguments, since the above problem is just (8a)-(8b) with $m(\cdot )=-a(\ell ,\overline{u},\cdot )-b(\cdot ,p)$.

*T*, $a(\ell ,\cdot ,\cdot )$, and (21a)-(21b). Since $c(\delta p,p-\stackrel{\u02c6}{z})=b(\delta \overline{u},p-\stackrel{\u02c6}{z})$, we obtain

- 1.
Compute

*u*by (16). - 2.
Compute

*w*by (21a)-(21b). - 3.
Compute $DJ(\ell )$ by (22).

Let us now develop the hybrid method for the computation of the second-order derivative. In the hybrid method proposed below, the derivative *δu* is computed directly while the computation of the second derivative ${\delta}^{2}u$ is avoided by using an adjoint method. We will follow the same general scheme that was used above, but here we will use derivative formula (12a)-(12b).

*H*, for every $v\in V$, we have

*cf.*(12a)-(12b)):

- 1.
Compute $u(\ell )=(\overline{u}(\ell ),p)$ by (16).

- 2.
Compute $\delta u=(\delta \overline{u},\delta p)$ by (12a)-(12b).

- 3.
Compute $w(\ell )=(\overline{w}(\ell ),q(\ell ))$ by (25a)-(25b).

- 4.
Compute ${D}^{2}J(\ell )(\delta \ell ,\delta \ell )$ by (26).

## 4 Discretization formulas for the adjoint and the hybrid method

In this section, we collect discrete formulae for saddle point problem (8a)-(8b) and the associated inverse problem. We begin, therefore, with a triangulation ${\mathcal{T}}_{h}$ on Ω, ${L}_{h}$ is the space of all piecewise continuous polynomials of degree ${d}_{\ell}$ relative to ${\mathcal{T}}_{h}$, ${U}_{h}$ is the space of all piecewise continuous polynomials of degree ${d}_{u}$ relative to ${\mathcal{T}}_{h}$, and ${Q}_{h}$ is the space of all piecewise continuous polynomials of degree ${d}_{q}$ relative to ${\mathcal{T}}_{h}$.

In order to represent the discrete saddle point problem in a computable form, we proceed as follows. We represent bases for ${L}_{h}$, ${U}_{h}$, and ${Q}_{h}$ by $\{{\phi}_{1},{\phi}_{2},\dots ,{\phi}_{m}\}$, $\{{\psi}_{1},{\psi}_{2},\dots ,{\psi}_{n}\}$, and $\{{\chi}_{1},{\chi}_{2},\dots ,{\chi}_{k}\}$, respectively. The space ${L}_{h}$ is then isomorphic to ${\mathbb{R}}^{m}$ and for any $\ell \in {L}_{h}$, we define $L\in {\mathbb{R}}^{m}$ by ${L}_{i}=\ell ({x}_{i})$ for $i=1,2,\dots ,m$, where the nodal basis $\{{\phi}_{1},{\phi}_{2},\dots ,{\phi}_{m}\}$ corresponds to the nodes $\{{x}_{1},{x}_{2},\dots ,{x}_{m}\}$. Conversely, each $L\in {\mathbb{R}}^{m}$ corresponds to $\ell \in {L}_{h}$ defined by $\ell ={\sum}_{i=1}^{m}{L}_{i}{\phi}_{i}$. Similarly, $u\in {U}_{h}$ will correspond to $U\in {\mathbb{R}}^{n}$, where ${\overline{U}}_{i}=u({y}_{i})$, $i=1,2,\dots ,n$, and $u={\sum}_{i=1}^{n}{\overline{U}}_{i}{\psi}_{i}$, where ${y}_{1},{y}_{2},\dots ,{y}_{n}$ are the nodes of the mesh defining ${U}_{h}$. Finally, $q\in {Q}_{h}$ will correspond to $Q\in {\mathbb{R}}^{k}$, where ${Q}_{i}=q({z}_{i})$, $i=1,2,\dots ,k$, and $q={\sum}_{i=1}^{k}{Q}_{i}{\chi}_{i}$, where ${z}_{1},{z}_{2},\dots ,{z}_{k}$ are the nodes of the mesh defining ${Q}_{h}$. (The spaces ${A}_{h}$, ${U}_{h}$, and ${Q}_{h}$ are defined relative to the same elements, but the nodes will be different if ${d}_{\ell}\ne {d}_{u}\ne {d}_{q}$.)

*U*is defined by

*T*is the tensor defined by

### 4.1 Computation of the gradient by using the adjoint method

- 1.We compute $U=\left[\begin{array}{c}\overline{U}(L)\\ P(L)\end{array}\right]$ by solving the linear system$\left[\begin{array}{cc}\stackrel{\u02c6}{K}(L)& {B}^{\mathrm{T}}\\ B& -C\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}\overline{U}(L)\\ P(L)\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{c}F\\ 0\end{array}\right].$(30)
- 2.We compute $W=\left[\begin{array}{c}\overline{W}(L)\\ {P}_{W}(L)\end{array}\right]$ by solving the linear system$\left[\begin{array}{cc}\stackrel{\u02c6}{K}(L)& {B}^{\mathrm{T}}\\ B& -C\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}\overline{W}(L)\\ {P}_{W}(L)\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{c}-\stackrel{\u02c6}{K}(L)(\overline{U}-\overline{Z})-{B}^{\mathrm{T}}(P-\stackrel{\u02c6}{P})\\ 0\end{array}\right].$(31)
- 3.The gradient $\mathrm{\nabla}J(L)$ can be calculated by using the adjoint stiffness matrix. From (22), we have$DJ(\ell )(\delta \ell )=\frac{1}{2}a(\delta \ell ,\overline{u}-\overline{z},\overline{u}-\overline{z})+a(\delta \ell ,\overline{u},\overline{w}),$(32)a direct discretization gives the following:$\begin{array}{rl}\mathrm{\nabla}J(L)(\delta L)& =\frac{1}{2}{(\overline{U}-\overline{Z})}^{\mathrm{T}}\stackrel{\u02c6}{K}(\delta L)(\overline{U}-\overline{Z})+{\overline{U}}^{\mathrm{T}}\stackrel{\u02c6}{K}(\delta L)\overline{W}\\ =\frac{1}{2}{\overline{U}}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathbb{A}(\overline{U}-\overline{Z})\delta L+{\overline{U}}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathbb{A}(\overline{W}(L))\delta L,\end{array}$and therefore the gradient $\mathrm{\nabla}J(L)$ is given by$\mathrm{\nabla}J(L)=\frac{1}{2}{(\overline{U}-\overline{Z})}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathbb{A}(\overline{U}-\overline{Z})+{\overline{U}}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathbb{A}(\overline{W}(L)).$(33)

### 4.2 Computation of the Hessian by using a hybrid method

- 1.
$a(\delta L,\delta \overline{U},\overline{U}-\overline{Z})=\delta {L}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathrm{\nabla}{\overline{U}}^{\mathrm{T}}\stackrel{\u02c6}{K}(\delta L)(\overline{U}-\overline{Z})=\delta {L}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathrm{\nabla}{\overline{U}}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathbb{A}(\overline{U}-\overline{Z})\delta L$,

- 2.
$a(L,\delta \overline{U},\delta \overline{U})=\delta {L}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathrm{\nabla}{\overline{U}}^{\mathrm{T}}\stackrel{\u02c6}{K}(L)\mathrm{\nabla}\overline{U}\delta L=\delta {L}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathrm{\nabla}{\overline{U}}^{\mathrm{T}}\stackrel{\u02c6}{K}(L)\mathrm{\nabla}\overline{U}\delta L$,

- 3.
$c(\delta P,\delta P)=\delta {L}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathrm{\nabla}{P}^{\mathrm{T}}C\mathrm{\nabla}P\delta L$,

- 4.
$a(\delta \ell ,\delta \overline{u},\overline{w})=\delta {L}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathrm{\nabla}{\overline{U}}^{\mathrm{T}}\stackrel{\u02c6}{K}(\delta L)\overline{W}=\delta {L}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathrm{\nabla}{\overline{U}}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathbb{A}(\overline{W})\delta L$.

- 1.
Compute $U=(\overline{U},P)$ by solving linear system (30).

- 2.
Compute $W=(\overline{W},P)$ by solving linear system (31).

- 3.
Compute $\mathrm{\nabla}U=(\mathrm{\nabla}\overline{U},\mathrm{\nabla}P)$ by solving

*m*linear systems. - 4.
Compute ${\mathrm{\nabla}}^{2}J(L)$ by using formula (35).

We note that to compute the Hessian using the hybrid method requires the solution of $m+2$ linear systems.

## 5 Numerical experiments

We consider here two representative examples of elastography inverse problems for the recovery of a variable *μ* on a two-dimensional isotropic domain $\mathrm{\Omega}=(0,1)\times (0,1)$ with boundary $\partial \mathrm{\Omega}={\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{1}\cup {\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{2}$. In the first example, a smooth coefficient is recovered using both the adjoint and hybrid gradient calculation methods. For the second example, we examine the recovery of a discontinuous coefficient using the adjoint method.

All examples are solved on a $75\times 75$ quadrangular mesh with 5,476 quadrangles and 16,576 total degrees of freedom. Example 1 uses a smooth Tikhonov-type regularization method, whereas the discontinuities in Example 2 necessitate the use of a BV-regularization scheme (see [23] for a more thorough discussion of regularization).

### 5.1 Example 1

*μ*at selected intermediary algorithm steps (subfigures (a) and (b)).

### 5.2 Example 2

where ${R}_{1}=\{(x,y):0.6\le x\le 0.8,0.2\le y\le 0.6\}$ and ${R}_{2}=\{(x,y):0.2\le x\le 0.4,0.2\le y\le 0.4\}$.

## 6 Concluding remarks

One issue not addressed in depth was the comparative performance of these methods, measured both against existing schemes and against one other. In short, we note that the hybrid method requires the solution of $m+2$ linear systems with *m* scaling along with the size of the mesh. However, the *m* systems remain entirely independent, allowing for the parallelization of parts of the computation and thus granting significant performance gains and potential advantages over other strategies. In a future work, we look to extend our study here into just such a thorough analysis and carefully consider the performance of the adjoint and hybrid derivative computation methods.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

The work of AA Khan is supported by RIT’s COS D-RIG Acceleration Research Funding Program 2012-2013 and a grant from the Simons Foundation (#210443 to Akhtar Khan). The work of M Sama is partially supported by Ministerio de Ciencia (Spain), project (MTM2012-30942).

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Doyley MM: Model-based elastography: a survey of approaches to the inverse elasticity problem.
*Phys. Med. Biol.*2012., 57: Article ID R35 10.1088/0031-9155/57/3/R35Google Scholar - Raghavan KR, Yagle AE: Forward and inverse problems in elasticity imaging of soft tissues.
*IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.*1994, 41: 1639-1648.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Aguilo MA, Aquino W, Brigham JC, Fatemi M: An inverse problem approach for elasticity imaging through vibroacoustics.
*IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging*2010, 29: 1012-1021.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Ammari H, Garapon P, Jouve F: Separation of scales in elasticity imaging: a numerical study.
*J. Comput. Math.*2010, 28: 354-370.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Arnold A, Reichling S, Bruhns O, Mosler J: Efficient computation of the elastography inverse problem by combining variational mesh adaption and clustering technique.
*Phys. Med. Biol.*2010, 55: 2035-2056.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Beretta E, Bonnetier E, Francini E, Mazzucato A: Small volume asymptotics for anisotropic elastic inclusions.
*Inverse Probl. Imaging*2012, 6: 1-23.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Ji L, McLaughlin J: Recovery of Lamé parameter
*μ*in biological tissues.*Inverse Probl.*2004, 20: 1-24.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Kallel F, Bertrand M: Tissue elasticity reconstruction using linear perturbation method.
*IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging*1996, 15: 299-313.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Barbone PE, Bamber JC: Quantitative elasticity imaging: what can and cannot be inferred from strain images.
*Phys. Med. Biol.*2002, 47: 2147-2164.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Barbone PE, Gokhale NH: Elastic modulus imaging: on the uniqueness and nonuniqueness of the elastography inverse problem in two dimensions.
*Inverse Probl.*2004, 20: 283-296.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Braess D:
*Finite Elements: Theory, Fast Solvers, and Applications in Solid Mechanics*. 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 2007.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Chan TF, Tai XC: Identification of discontinuous coefficients in elliptic problems using total variation regularization.
*SIAM J. Sci. Comput.*2003, 25: 881-904.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Gockenbach MS, Khan AA: Identification of Lamé parameters in linear elasticity: a fixed point approach.
*J. Ind. Manag. Optim.*2005, 1: 487-497.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Gockenbach MS, Jadamba B, Khan AA: Numerical estimation of discontinuous coefficients by the method of equation error.
*Int. J. Math. Comput. Sci.*2006, 1: 343-359.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Gockenbach MS, Jadamba B, Khan AA: Equation error approach for elliptic inverse problems with an application to the identification of Lamé parameters.
*Inverse Probl. Sci. Eng.*2008, 16: 349-367.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Harrigan T, Konofagou EE: Estimation of material elastic moduli in elastography: a local method, and an investigation of Poisson ratio sensitivity.
*J. Biomech.*2004, 37: 1215-1221.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Jadamba B, Khan AA, Raciti F: On the inverse problem of identifying Lamé coefficients in linear elasticity.
*Comput. Math. Appl.*2008, 56: 431-443.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Jadamba B, Khan AA, Sama M: Inverse problems of parameter identification in partial differential equations. In
*Mathematics in Science and Technology*. World Scientific, Hackensack; 2011:228-258.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Konofagou E, Harrigan T, Ophir J, Krouskop T: Poroelastography: estimation and imaging of the poroelastic properties of tissues.
*IEEE Proceedings of the Symposium in Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control*1999, 1627-1630, Lake Tahoe, NVGoogle Scholar - McLaughlin J, Yoon JR: Unique identifiability of elastic parameters from time-dependent interior displacement measurement.
*Inverse Probl.*2004, 20: 25-45.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Mehrabian H, Campbell G, Samani A: A constrained reconstruction technique of hyperelasticity parameters for breast cancer assessment.
*Phys. Med. Biol.*2012, 53: 7489-7508.Google Scholar - Brezzi F, Fortin M:
*Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element Methods*. Springer, New York; 1991.MATHView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Doyley, MM, Jadamba, B, Khan, AA, Sama, M, Winkler, B: A new energy inversion for parameter identification in saddle point problems with an application to the elasticity imaging inverse problem of predicting tumor location (2013, submitted)Google Scholar
- Oberai AA, Gokhale NH, Feijóo GR: Solution of inverse problems in elasticity imaging using the adjoint method.
*Inverse Probl.*2003, 19: 297-313.MATHView ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Tortorelli DA, Michaleris P: Design sensitivity analysis: overview and review.
*Inverse Probl. Eng.*1994, 1: 71-105.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Cioacaa A, Alexea M, Sandua A: Second-order adjoints for solving PDE-constrained optimization problems.
*Optim. Methods Softw.*2012, 27: 625-653.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Goeleven D, Motreanu D 2. In
*Variational and Hemivariational Inequalities - Theory, Methods and Applications*. Springer, Berlin; 2003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Bush, N, Jadamba, B, Khan, AA, Raciti, F: Identification of a parameter in fourth-order partial differential equations by an equation error approach (2014, to appear)MATHGoogle Scholar
- Crossen, E, Gockenbach, MS, Jadamba, B, Khan, AA, Winkler, B: An equation error approach for the elasticity imaging inverse problem for predicting tumor location. Comput. Math. Appl. (2013, to appear)Google Scholar
- Gockenbach MS, Khan AA: An abstract framework for elliptic inverse problems. Part 1: an output least-squares approach.
*Math. Mech. Solids*2007, 12: 259-276.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Gockenbach MS, Khan AA: An abstract framework for elliptic inverse problems. Part 2: an augmented Lagrangian approach.
*Math. Mech. Solids*2009, 14: 517-539.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.