- Open Access
The unique solution for periodic differential equations with upper and lower solutions in reverse order
© Yang et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 23 November 2012
Accepted: 25 March 2013
Published: 11 April 2013
In this paper, we obtain the unique solution for the following periodic problem
where is a continuous function, by constructing an auxiliary system with bounded solutions. The upper and lower solution method and an anti-maximum principle are employed to establish the monotone iterative sequences and obtain the extremal solutions for the auxiliary system.
where is a continuous function.
It is well known that the upper and lower solution method together with the iterative technique is a powerful tool for proving the existence results for boundary value problems (see [1–12] and the references therein). Recently, the case when the upper solution and the lower solution are in the reversed order has received some attention (see [2–9] and the references therein). The monotone approximation method can be used in the case the lower and upper solutions are in the reversed order . This method works for any boundary value problem such that a uniform anti-maximum principle holds. This is the case for the Neumann and periodic problems.
In , Torres and Zhang considered a kind of 2π-periodic boundary value problem. The strategy of this paper was to exploit an anti-maximum principle for the linear equation in order to construct a monotone approximation scheme converging to the solution.
They used the monotone iterative technique with upper and lower solution in reversed order to define two sequences that converge uniformly to extremal solution of (1.2). However, they did not construct the explicit expression of the monotone iterative sequences.
where is a -Carathéodory function, and .
Motivated by the above works, we are mainly concerned with the periodic problem (1.1). One might have noticed that computing the iterative sequences and can be a difficult work in those existed papers. In this paper, by adopting an auxiliary periodic system and an anti-maximum principle which are different from that in the reference , we also obtain the unique solution for the problem (1.1).
where is a continuous function and , the constant K is defined in Section 3.
The organization of this paper is as follows. We shall introduce some useful lemmas in Section 2. The main results and their proof about auxiliary periodic (1.3) are given in Section 3. Section 4 gives the unique solution of (1.1) and an example is introduced.
2 Related lemmas
For the convenience of the reader, we give some lemmas which will be used in the next section. Firstly, recall the continuation theorem of Mawhin.
Lemma 2.1 
Let X and Y be two Banach spaces with norms and , respectively, and an open and bounded set. Suppose is a Fredholm operator of index zero and , is L-compact. In addition, if
(A1) for , ;
(A2) for ;
(A3) , where is a projection such that and is a homeomorphism.
Then the abstract equation has at least one solution in .
Secondly, to prove the validity of the monotone iterative technique, we present the anti-maximum comparison principle as follows.
Lemma 2.2 
Finally, recall some classical integral inequalities.
Lemma 2.3 
3 Extremal solution for (1.3)
Assume that there exist constants , and such that , we need the following hypotheses:
(H4) , where θ is defined in (2.2).
Lemma 3.1 Assume that (H1), (H3) and (H4) hold. Then the problems (3.2) and (3.3) have unique solutions.
Now, ImL is closed in Y. It is easy to see that and . Thus, L is a linear Fredholm operator with index zero.
Obviously, QN and are continuous. By Arzelà-Ascoli theorem, we can show that is relative compact for any open bounded set . Moreover, is bounded. Thus, N is L-compact on .
In the following, we complete the remainder proof by four steps.
i.e. . Hence, is bounded.
that is, is bounded.
Lemma 2.1 yields that has at least one solution.
Step 4. We claim that the problem (3.2) has a unique solution. Suppose to the contrary, that there exist two solutions and of (3.2).
Applying Lemma 2.2, we have on . That is, . Also, we can obtain by the same method. Thus, .
By a similar argument, we can obtain the existence of unique solution for the problem (3.3). □
Now, we give the main result for (1.3).
Theorem 3.1 Assume that α, β are a pair of lower and upper solutions of (1.3) defined by (3.1) such that . Suppose that (H1)-(H4) hold.
, when , , .
Lemma 2.2 implies that . Similarly, we can check that . Hence, .
Applying Lemma 2.2, we get . A similar argument shows that . Thus, .
Essentially, the same as in the proof of Lemma 3.1 guarantees that there exists a constant such that . This shows that converges in X, i.e. there exists so that , , , and also from (i).
We can proceed as in the proof of (i) to show that , i.e. and , . Hence, and , i.e. . □
Remark 3.2 Notice that if is a solution of the auxiliary system (1.3), then u is a solution of the given problem (1.1) under the assumption . Thus, and are bounds on solutions of (1.1).
If the bounds and obtained in Theorem 3.1 are equal, then is a unique solution of the problem (1.1). In particular, under appropriate assumptions, this theorem provides an approximation scheme to the unique solution of (1.1).
4 Unique solution for (1.1)
Theorem 4.1 Suppose that the conditions (H1)-(H4) hold. Then the periodic problem (1.1) has a unique solution provided that .
which is a contradiction. □
Thus, (H4) is satisfied. Thanks to Theorems 3.1, the system (4.3) has a solution . In view of the values of N, K, M, L, we have . Hence, Theorem 4.1 implies that , that is, the problem (4.1) has a unique solution.
Remark 4.1 When , , and g is given by (4.3), Example 4.1 does not satisfy the conditions imposed in [, Theorem 3.3] because α, β are not a pair of lower and upper solutions of Eq. (3.7) in . In fact, our definitions of the lower and upper α, β, and the monotone iterative sequences , are all different from [, Theorem 3.3]. In addition, the ultimate goal of this paper is the unique solution of (1.1) by constructing an auxiliary system (1.3), which is one of the highlights of this article.
The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments and constructive suggestions, which helped to enrich the content and considerably improved the presentation of this paper. This research is supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of People’s Republic of China (Grant No. 11226148 and No. 61273016), the Scientific Research Foundation of Zhejiang Province (Grant No. LY12F05006), and the Education Department Foundation of Zhejiang Province (Grant No. Y201121906).
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