 Research
 Open Access
 Published:
Fixed point theorems for a class of nonlinear sumtype operators and application in a fractional differential equation
Boundary Value Problems volume 2018, Article number: 140 (2018)
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the fixed point for a class of nonlinear sumtype operators ‘\(A+B+C\)’ on an ordered Banach space, where A, B are two mixed monotone operators, C is an increasing operator. Without assuming the existence of upperlower solutions or compactness or continuity conditions, we prove the unique existence of a positive fixed point and also construct two iterative schemes to approximate it. As applications, we research a nonlinear fractional differential equation with multipoint fractional boundary conditions. By using the obtained fixed point theorems of sumtype operator, we get the sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence and uniqueness of positive solutions. At last, a specific example is provided to illustrate our result.
Introduction
With a significant development and extensive applications in various differential and integral equations, nonlinear operators theory has been an active area of research in nonlinear functional analysis. Over the past several decades, much attention has been paid to various fixed point theorems for the single nonlinear operator, and a lot of important results have been obtained, see for example [1–10]. Thereinto, without requiring the operators to be continuous or compact or having the upperlower solutions, the authors present some important and interesting fixed point theorems (see [1, 4–10]).
On the other hand, in recent years, the sumtype nonlinear operators have been of great interest, there is a great deal of work focused on studying the existence and uniqueness of solutions for sumtype operator equations in a real Banach space, see [11–18]. Consider the following operator equation:
In [11], the operator A stands for a mixed monotone operator, B represents a sublinear operator. By using the partial ordering theory and monotone iterative technique, Sang gets the existence and uniqueness of solutions. Note that, in this study, the author does not require the operators to have upperlower solutions.
In [12], \(A:P\times P\rightarrow P\) is a mixed monotone operator verifying a more general concave property, \(B:E\times E\rightarrow E\) is a sublinear operator. Amor proves that the operator equation has exactly one fixed point in \([u_{0},v_{0}]\).
In [13], \(A:P\times P\rightarrow P\) is a mixed monotone operator, \(B:P\rightarrow P\) is an increasing subhomogeneous operator or αconcave operator. By applying a fixed point theorem for mixed monotone operators, Zhai and Hao get some existence and uniqueness results of positive solutions.
In [14], Zhai and Anderson consider the following operator equation:
where A is an increasing αconcave operator, B is an increasing subhomogeneous operator, and C is a homogeneous operator. The authors obtain some new theorems on the existence and uniqueness of positive solutions by using the properties of cones and a fixed point theorem for increasing general βconcave operator.
In [15], the authors study the fixed point for the sum of two mixed monotone operators.
where \(A,B: P\times P\rightarrow P\) satisfy
Various theorems have been established to guarantee the existence of a unique positive solution. In addition, associated iterative schemes have been established for finding the approximate solution converging to the obtained fixed point.
In [16], the authors research the existence and uniqueness of positive solution to the following sumtype mixed monotone operator equation:
where \(A,B,C: P\times P\rightarrow P\) are three general mixed monotone operators, A, B satisfy the same condition in [15], and \(C(\cdot,y):P\rightarrow P\) is concave for fixed y; \(C(x,\cdot ):P\rightarrow P\) is convex for any fixed x. The authors establish various theorems to guarantee the existence of unique positive solution and they also construct iterative schemes to approximate the unique solution.
In [17], we have already studied the following sumtype operator equation:
where \(A:P\rightarrow P\) is an increasing αconcave (or subhomogeneous) operator, \(B:P\rightarrow P\) is a decreasing operator, \(C:P\times P\rightarrow P\) is a mixed monotone operator. By using the properties of cones and a fixed point theorem for mixed monotone operator, we obtain the existence and uniqueness of positive solutions.
As applications, the above results on the sumtype nonlinear operators have been widely applied to study nonlinear differential and integral equations, see [11–23] and the references therein. In [12], the new fixed point theorems are used to prove positive solutions to a second order Neumann boundary value problem, a Sturm–Liouville boundary value problem, and a nonlinear elliptic boundary value problem for the Lane–Emden–Fowler equation. In [13, 19, 20], authors investigate the existence and uniqueness results for some kinds of fractional differential equations and nonlinear elastic beam equations via the fixed point theorems in [13]. Also, based on a method originally due to Zhai and Anderson [14], Feng et al. present the existence and uniqueness of positive solutions for nonlinear elastic beam equations, Lane–Emden–Fowler equations, and a class of fractional differential equation with integral boundary conditions in [14, 21]. Besides, these fixed point theorems can also be used to deal with some singular problems. In [22, 23], the unique existence of positive solutions for singular fractional differential systems with coupled integral boundary conditions and with integral boundary conditions is studied by fixed point theorem in [15].
Motivated by the above work on fixed point theorems of sumtype operator and their wide applications, in this paper, we continue to talk bout another sumtype operator equation on an ordered Banach space.
where \(A, B:P\times P\rightarrow P\) are two mixed monotone operators, \(C:P\rightarrow P\) is an increasing operator. We are concerned with the existence and uniqueness of positive solutions for this kind of operator equation, in which the operators are not required to be continuous, compact but satisfy the following properties.
Case one:

(1)
\(A(tx,t^{1}y)\geq t^{\alpha}A(x,y)\), \(\alpha\in(0,1)\), \(\forall x, y\in P\), \(t\in(0,1)\).

(2)
\(B(\cdot,y):P\rightarrow P\) is concave for fixed y; \(B(x,\cdot):P\rightarrow P\) is convex for any fixed x.

(3)
C is a subhomogeneous operator.
Case two:

(1)
\(A(tx,t^{1}y)\geq t A(x,y)\), \(\forall x, y\in P\), \(t\in(0,1)\).

(2)
\(B(\cdot,y):P\rightarrow P\) is concave for fixed y; \(B(x,\cdot) :P\rightarrow P\) is convex for any fixed x.

(3)
C is a αconcave operator.
After obtaining the unique existence results for operator Eq. (1.1), we also construct two iterative sequences for uniformly approximating the positive solution. Then, we utilize the obtained fixed point theorems to study the existence and uniqueness of positive solutions for a nonlinear fractional differential equation with multipoint fractional boundary conditions. Also, we give a specific example to demonstrate our abstract result. The characteristic features presented in this paper are as follows. Firstly, to our knowledge, in the existing literature, there is almost no research on the fixed point for sumtype operator \('A+B+C'\) with operators satisfying the conditions showed in case one and case two. Hence, our research presents new methods to study nonlinear equation problems. Secondly, the work presented in this paper is the generalization and improvement of sumtype operator equation studied in [13], where B is a null operator. Other particular cases of our research were investigated in [15], where C is a null operator. Finally, we also discuss the solution of the nonlinear eigenvalue equation \(A(x, x) + B(x, x) +Cx= \lambda x\) and give dependency to the parameter. Hence, it is worthwhile to investigate the operator Eq. (1.1).
The content of this paper is organized as follows. In Sect. 2, we present some definitions, lemmas that will be used in the proofs of our theorems. In Sect. 3, we consider the unique existence of positive solutions for the operator Eq. (1.1) without assuming operators to be continuous and compact. In Sect. 4, we utilize the results obtained in Sect. 3 to study the existence and uniqueness of positive solutions for nonlinear fractional differential equation with multipoint fractional boundary conditions, and we also give a concrete example to illustrate our result.
Preliminaries
For convenience of the reader, we present some definitions, lemmas, and basic results that will be used in the proofs of our theorems. For more details, we refer the reader to [1–3, 24, 25].
Definition 2.1
([24])
Let E be a real Banach space. A nonempty closed convex set \(P\subset E\) is called a cone if it satisfies the following conditions:

(i)
If \(x\in P\), \(\lambda\geq0\), then \(\lambda x\in P\);

(ii)
If \(x\in P\) and \(x\in P\), then \(x=\theta\),
where θ denotes the zero element of E. The cone P includes a partial order in E given by
in which we denote \(x< y\) or \(y>x\) if \(x\neq y\).
About the cone P, we also have the following definitions.
A cone P is said to be solid if P̊ is nonempty, where \(\mathring{P}=\{x\in P \mid x\mbox{ is an interior point of } P\}\).
A cone P is called normal if there exists a constant \(N>0\) such that, for all \(x,y\in E\), \(\theta\leq x\leq y\) implies \(\x\\leq N\y\ \), where N is called the normality constant of P.
Given \(h>\theta\) (i.e., \(h\geq\theta\) and \(h\neq\theta\)), we denote by \(P_{h}\) the set \(P_{h}=\{x\in E\mid x\sim h\}\), in which ∼ is an equivalence relation, i.e., \(x\sim y\) means that there exist \(\lambda >0\) and \(\mu>0\) such that \(\lambda x\leq y\leq\mu x\) for all \(x,y\in E\). It is easy to see that \(P_{h}\subset P\) is convex and \(\lambda P_{h}=P_{h}\) for all \(\lambda>0\). If \(\mathring{P}\neq\theta\) and \(h\in\mathring{P}\), it is clear that \(P_{h}=\mathring{P}\).
Definition 2.2
([2])
An operator \(A:P\times P\rightarrow P\) is said to be a mixed monotone operator if \(A(x,y)\) is increasing in x and decreasing in y, i.e., \(\forall u_{i}, v_{i}(i=1,2)\in P\), \(u_{1}\leq u_{2}\), \(v_{1}\geq v_{2}\) imply \(A(u_{1},v_{1})\leq A(u_{2},v_{2})\). An element \(x\in P\) is called a fixed point of A if \(A(x,x)=x\).
Definition 2.3
([25])
An operator \(A: E\rightarrow E\) is said to be increasing if for any \(x, y\in E\), \(x\leq y\) implies \(Ax\leq Ay\).
Definition 2.4
([25])
An operator \(A:P\rightarrow P\) is said to be subhomogeneous if it satisfies
Definition 2.5
([25])
Let \(D=P\) or \(D=\mathring{P}\) and α be a real number with \(0\leq\alpha<1\). An operator \(A:D\rightarrow D\) is said to be αconcave if it satisfies
Definition 2.6
([3])
Let D be a convex subset in E. An operator \(A: D \rightarrow E\) is called a convex operator (or concave operator) if
for \(x,y\in D\) with \(y\leq x\) and every \(t\in[0,1]\).
Lemma 2.1
([9])
Let P be a normal cone in E. Assume that \(T:P\times P\rightarrow P\) is a mixed monotone operator and satisfies the following:
 \((\mathrm{A}_{1})\) :

There exists \(h\in P\) with \(h\neq\theta\) such that \(T(h,h)\in P_{h}\);
 \((\mathrm{A}_{2})\) :

For any \(u,v\in P\) and \(t\in(0,1)\), there exists \(\varphi(t)\in(t,1]\) such that \(T(tu,t^{1}v)\geq\varphi(t)T(u,v)\).

(1)
\(T:P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\);

(2)
There exist \(u_{0},v_{0}\in P_{h}\) and \(r\in(0,1)\) such that \(rv_{0}\leq u_{0}< v_{0}\), \(u_{0}\leq T(u_{0},v_{0})\leq T(v_{0},u_{0})\leq v_{0} \);

(3)
T has a unique fixed point \(x^{\ast}\) in \(P_{h}\);

(4)
For any initial values \(x_{0},y_{0}\in P_{h}\), constructing successively the sequences
$$x_{n}=T(x_{n1},y_{n1}),\qquad y_{n}=T(y_{n1},x_{n1}),\quad n=1,2,\ldots, $$we have \(x_{n}\rightarrow x^{\ast}\) and \(y_{n}\rightarrow x^{\ast}\) as \(n\rightarrow\infty\).
Main results
In this section, we study some fixed point theorems for a class of sumtype operators. This problem is equivalent to researching the existence and uniqueness of positive solutions for the operator equation \(A(x,x)+B(x,x)+Cx=x\), where A, B are the mixed monotone operators with different properties, C is an increasing operator. We assume that E is a real Banach space with a partial order introduced by a normal cone P of E. Take \(h\in E\), \(h>\theta\), \(P_{h}\) is given as in the preliminaries.
Theorem 3.1
We will make the assumptions: \(C: P\rightarrow P\) is an increasing subhomogeneous operator, \(A, B : P\times P\rightarrow P\) are two mixed monotone operators satisfying the following conditions:
 (\(\mathrm{L}_{1}\)):

Let \(\alpha\in(0,1)\) for any \(t\in(0,1)\),
$$ A\bigl(tx,t^{1}y\bigr)\geq t^{\alpha}A(x,y),\quad \forall x,y\in P. $$(3.1)  (\(\mathrm{L}_{2}\)):

For any fixed \(y\in P\), \(B(\cdot, y):P\rightarrow P\) is concave, that is, for any \(x_{1}, x_{2}\in P\) with \(x_{2}\leq x_{1}\) and every \(t\in(0,1)\), we have
$$ B\bigl(tx_{1}+(1t)x_{2},y\bigr)\geq tB(x_{1},y)+(1t)B(x_{2},y); $$(3.2)For any fixed \(x\in P\), \(B(x,\cdot):P\rightarrow P\) is convex, that is, for any \(y_{1}, y_{2}\in P\) with \(y_{2}\leq y_{1}\) and every \(t\in (0,1)\), we have
$$ B\bigl(x,ty_{1}+(1t)y_{2}\bigr)\leq tB(x,y_{1})+(1t)B(x,y_{2}). $$(3.3)  (\(\mathrm{L}_{3}\)):

There exists a constant \(b\in[\frac {1}{2},1]\) such that
$$ B(\theta,lh)\geq b B(lh,\theta), \quad\forall l\geq1. $$  (\(\mathrm{L}_{4}\)):

There is \(h\in P\), \(h> \theta\), such that \(A(h,h)\in P_{h}\), \(B(h,h)\in P_{h}\), and \(Ch\in P_{h}\).
 (\(\mathrm{L}_{5}\)):

There exists a constant \(\delta_{0}>0\) such that
$$ A(x,y)\geq\delta_{0}\bigl[B(x,y)+Cx\bigr], \quad\forall x, y\in P. $$(3.4)

(1)
\(A: P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\), \(B: P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\), \(C: P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\);

(2)
There exist \(u_{0},v_{0}\in P_{h}\) and \(r\in(0,1)\) such that
$$rv_{0}\leq u_{0}< v_{0},\qquad u_{0} \leq A(u_{0},v_{0})+B(u_{0},v_{0})+Cu_{0} \leq A(v_{0},u_{0})+B(v_{0},u_{0})+Cv_{0} \leq v_{0}; $$ 
(3)
The operator equation \(A(x,x)+B(x,x)+Cx=x\) has a unique solution \(x^{\ast}\) in \(P_{h}\);

(4)
For any initial values \(x_{0},y_{0}\in P_{h}\), constructing successively the sequences
$$\begin{aligned} &x_{n}=A(x_{n1},y_{n1})+B(x_{n1},y_{n1})+Cx_{n1}, \quad n=1,2,\ldots , \\ &y_{n}=A(y_{n1},x_{n1})+B(y_{n1},x_{n1})+Cy_{n1}, \quad n=1,2,\ldots, \end{aligned}$$we have \(x_{n}\rightarrow x^{\ast}\) and \(y_{n}\rightarrow x^{\ast}\) as \(n\rightarrow\infty\).
Proof
The proof will be divided into two steps.
Step one: We demonstrate \(A: P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\), \(B: P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\), \(C: P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\).
Firstly, for any \(t\in(0,1)\), \(x,y\in P\), by (3.3) in (\(\mathrm {L}_{2}\)), we have
This clearly forces
By finding a sufficiently large constant \(l\geq1\) such that x, y, \(t^{1}y\leq lh\). On account of (\(\mathrm{L}_{3}\)), (3.2), (3.5), and the monotone property of operator B, we obtain
That is,
Secondly, from (3.1) and (2.1), for any \(t\in(0,1)\), we have
Since \(A(h,h)\), \(B(h,h)\), \(Ch\in P_{h}\), there exist positive constants \(\mu_{i}\), \(\nu_{i}\) (\(i=1,2,3\)) such that
For any \(x,y\in P_{h}\), choose two sufficiently small numbers \(c_{1},c_{2}\in(0,1)\) such that
Set \(c=\min\{c_{1}, c_{2}\}\), then \(c\in(0,1)\), it follows from (3.1), (3.8), (3.10) that
Noting that \(\frac{1}{c^{\alpha}}\nu_{1}>0\), \(c^{\alpha}\mu_{1}>0\), we can get \(A(x,y)\in P_{h}\). That is, \(A: P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\).
Besides, by (3.6), (3.7), and (3.10), we deduce that
Evidently, \(\frac{1}{c}\nu_{2}>0\), \(c\mu_{2}>0\). Thus \(B(h,h)\in P_{h}\) implies \(B: P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\).
Moreover, according to (2.1), (3.9), and (3.10), we get
Clearly, \(\frac{1}{c_{1}}\nu_{3}>0\), \(c_{1}\mu_{3}>0\) show that \(Cx\in P_{h}\), which means \(C: P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\). So conclusion (1) is founded.
Step two: We define an operator \(T=A+B+C\) by
Then \(T:P\times P\rightarrow P\) is a mixed monotone operator and \(T(h,h)\in P_{h}\). Now we show that there exist \(\varphi(t)\in(t,1]\) such that
Let f be given by
Obviously, f is increasing in \((0,1)\) and
Also, fixing \(t\in(0,1)\), we have
Hence there exists \(\beta_{0}(t)\in(\alpha,1)\) with respect to t such that
Accordingly, \(\forall t\in(0,1)\), \(x, y\in P\), we have
Then we get
Consequently, by (3.12) we can obtain
Let \(\varphi(t)=t^{\beta_{0}(t)}\), \(t\in(0,1)\), then \(\varphi(t)\in (t,1]\), and
Combining step one and step two, we see at once that the operator T satisfies all the conditions in Lemma 2.1. Having applied Lemma 2.1, we conclude that \((c_{1})\) there exist \(u_{0},v_{0}\in P_{h}\) and \(r\in(0,1)\) such that \(rv_{0}\leq u_{0}< v_{0}\), \(u_{0}\leq T(u_{0},v_{0})\leq T(v_{0},u_{0})\leq v_{0}\); \((c_{2})\) the operator T has a unique fixed point \(x^{\ast}\) in \(P_{h}\); \((c_{3})\) for any initial values \(x_{0}, y_{0}\in P_{h}\), constructing successively the sequences
we have \(x_{n}\rightarrow x^{\ast}\) and \(y_{n}\rightarrow x^{\ast}\) as \(n\rightarrow\infty\). That is, conclusions \((2)\)–\((4)\) hold, which completes the proof. □
By the proof of Theorem 3.1, we can obtain the following corollary.
Corollary 3.1
Suppose that \(C: P\rightarrow P\) is an increasing subhomogeneous operator, \(A,B : P\times P\rightarrow P\) are two mixed monotone operators and they satisfy conditions (\(\mathrm{L}_{1}\)), (\(\mathrm {L}_{4}\)), and (\(\mathrm{L}_{5}\)). Moreover, we assume that the operator B satisfies
Then conclusions \((1)\)–\((4)\) in Theorem 3.1 also hold.
Corollary 3.2
Assume all the conditions about operators A, B, C in Theorem 3.1 or Corollary 3.1 hold. Then, for any given \(\lambda >0\), the operator equation \(A(x,x)+B(x,x)+Cx=\lambda x\) has a unique positive solution \(x_{\lambda}^{\ast}\in P_{h}\). Moreover, for any initial values \(x_{0}\), \(y_{0}\in P_{h}\), constructing successively the sequences
we obtain \(x_{n}\rightarrow x_{\lambda}^{\ast}\) and \(y_{n}\rightarrow x_{\lambda}^{\ast}\) as \(n\rightarrow\infty\).
Proof
If we set operator \(T=\lambda^{1}(A+B+C)\) (\(\lambda>0\)), similar to the proof of Theorem 3.1, we can easily obtain that the operator T satisfies all the conditions of Lemma 2.1. □
Corollary 3.3
Making the assumptions: \(A, B : P\times P\rightarrow P\) are two mixed monotone operators and they satisfy (\(\mathrm{L}_{1}\))–(\(\mathrm{L}_{3}\)). Besides, we assume that:
 (\(\mathrm{L}'_{4}\)):

There is \(h\in P\), \(h> \theta\), such that \(A(h,h)\in P_{h}\) and \(B(h,h)\in P_{h}\).
 (\(\mathrm{L}'_{5}\)):

There exists a constant \(\delta_{0}>0\) such that
$$ A(x,y)\geq\delta_{0}B(x,y), \quad \forall x, y\in P. $$

(1)
\(A: P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\), \(B: P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\);

(2)
There exist \(u_{0},v_{0}\in P_{h}\) and \(r\in(0,1)\) such that
$$rv_{0}\leq u_{0}< v_{0},\qquad u_{0} \leq A(u_{0},v_{0})+B(u_{0},v_{0})\leq A(v_{0},u_{0})+B(v_{0},u_{0})\leq v_{0}; $$ 
(3)
The operator equation \(A(x,x)+B(x,x)=x\) has a unique solution \(x^{\ast}\) in \(P_{h}\);

(4)
For any initial values \(x_{0}, y_{0}\in P_{h}\), constructing successively the sequences
$$\begin{aligned} &x_{n}=A(x_{n1},y_{n1})+B(x_{n1},y_{n1}), \quad n=1,2,\ldots, \\ &y_{n}=A(y_{n1},x_{n1})+B(y_{n1},x_{n1}), \quad n=1,2,\ldots, \end{aligned}$$we have \(x_{n}\rightarrow x^{\ast}\) and \(y_{n}\rightarrow x^{\ast}\) as \(n\rightarrow\infty\).
Theorem 3.2
Assume \(C:P\rightarrow P\) is an increasing αconcave operator, \(A,B:P\times P\rightarrow P\) are two mixed monotone operators. The operators satisfy conditions (\(\mathrm{L}_{2}\))–(\(\mathrm{L}_{4}\)) and the following hypotheses:
 (\(\mathrm{L}_{6}\)):

For any \(t\in(0,1)\),
$$ A\bigl(tx,t^{1}y\bigr)\geq t A(x,y),\quad \forall x, y \in P. $$(3.13)  (\(\mathrm{L}_{7}\)):

There exists a constant \(\delta_{0}>0\) such that
$$ A(x,y)+B(x,y)\leq\delta_{0}Cx, \quad \forall x, y\in P. $$(3.14)Then conclusions \((1)\)–\((4)\) in Theorem 3.1 also hold true.
Proof
In this section, the operator B can be handled in much the same way as in Theorem 3.1, so it follows easily that \(B: P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\). Next, we only need to analyze the operators A and C. By (3.13) and (2.2), it is obvious that
Similar to the analysis in the proof of Theorem 3.1, we deduce \(A:P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\) and \(C:P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\), which gives that conclusion \((1)\) holds true.
Furthermore, we define the operator \(T=A+B+C\) such that (3.11). Clearly, \(T:P\times P\rightarrow P\) is a mixed monotone operator and \(T(h,h)\in P_{h}\). So condition \((A_{1})\) in Lemma 2.1 is established. In the following, we only need to prove that there exist \(\varphi (t)\in(t,1]\) with respect to \(t\in(0,1)\) such that
In fact, we define an auxiliary function:
It is easily seen that f is decreasing with respect to \(t\in(0,1)\) and
Fix \(t\in(0,1)\),
We conclude from the above equations that there exists \(\beta_{0}(t)\in (\alpha,1)\) with respect to t such that
hence that
and finally that
In consequence, by (3.17), \(\forall t\in(0,1)\), \(x, y\in P\), we have
Hence, condition \((A_{2})\) in Lemma 2.1 holds true. An application of Lemma 2.1 implies that conclusions \((2)\)–\((4)\) hold true. The proof is completed. □
Corollary 3.4
Let \(\alpha\in(0,1)\). \(C:P\rightarrow P\) is an increasing αconcave operator, \(B : P\times P\rightarrow P\) is a mixed monotone operator and satisfies conditions (\(\mathrm{L}_{2}\))–(\(\mathrm {L}_{3}\)). Furthermore, we assume that
 (\(\mathrm{L}_{6}'\)):

There is \(h\in P\), \(h> \theta\), such that \(B(h,h)\in P_{h}\) and \(Ch\in P_{h}\).
 (\(\mathrm{L}_{7}'\)):

There exists a constant \(\delta_{0}>0\) such that
$$ B(x,y)\leq\delta_{0}Cx, \quad \forall x, y\in P. $$

(1)
\(B: P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\), \(C: P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\);

(2)
There exist \(u_{0}, v_{0}\in P_{h}\) and \(r\in(0,1)\) such that
$$rv_{0}\leq u_{0}< v_{0},\qquad u_{0} \leq B(u_{0},v_{0})+Cu_{0}\leq B(v_{0},u_{0})+Cv_{0}\leq v_{0}; $$ 
(3)
The operator equation \(B(x,x)+Cx=x\) has a unique solution \(x^{\ast }\) in \(P_{h}\);

(4)
For any initial values \(x_{0}, y_{0}\in P_{h}\), constructing successively the sequences
$$\begin{aligned} &x_{n}=B(x_{n1},y_{n1})+Cx_{n1},\quad n=1,2,\ldots, \\ &y_{n}=B(y_{n1},x_{n1})+Cy_{n1},\quad n=1,2,\ldots, \end{aligned}$$we have \(x_{n}\rightarrow x^{\ast}\) and \(y_{n}\rightarrow x^{\ast}\) as \(n\rightarrow\infty\).
Corollary 3.5
Assume all the conditions about operators A, B, C in Theorem 3.2 hold. Then the operator equation \(A(x,x)+B(x,x)+Cx=\lambda x\) has a unique positive solution \(x_{\lambda}^{\ast}\in P_{h}\) for any given \(\lambda>0\). Besides, constructing successively the sequences
for any initial values \(x_{0}\), \(y_{0}\in P_{h}\), we obtain \(x_{n}\rightarrow x_{\lambda}^{\ast}\) and \(y_{n}\rightarrow x_{\lambda }^{\ast}\) as \(n\rightarrow\infty\).
In view of the fact that \(P_{h}=\mathring{P}\) with \(h\neq\theta\) and \(h\in\mathring{P}\), we suppose that operators \(A, B:P_{h}\times P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\), \(C:P_{h}\rightarrow P_{h}\) or \(A, B:\mathring {P}\times\mathring{P}\rightarrow\mathring{P}\), \(C:\mathring {P}\rightarrow\mathring{P}\) with P is a solid cone, then \(A(h,h)\in P_{h}\), \(B(h,h)\in P_{h}\) and \(Ch\in P_{h}\) are automatically satisfied. So if we let \(D=\mathring{P}\) or \(P_{h}\), we have the following results.
Corollary 3.6
Let \(C: D\rightarrow D\) be an increasing subhomogeneous operator, \(A,B : D\times D\rightarrow D\) be two mixed monotone operators. Assume that
(\(\mathrm{M}_{1}\)) Set \(\alpha\in(0,1)\), for any \(t\in(0,1)\),
(\(\mathrm{M}_{2}\)) For any fixed \(y\in D\), \(B(\cdot, y):D\rightarrow D\) is concave, for any fixed \(x\in D\), \(B(x,\cdot):D\rightarrow D\) is convex.
(\(\mathrm{M}_{3}\)) There exists a constant \(b\in[\frac{1}{2},1]\) such that
(\(\mathrm{M}_{4}\)) There exists a constant \(\delta_{0}>0\) such that
Then conclusions \((2)\)–\((4)\) of Theorem 3.1 hold.
Corollary 3.7
Assume that \(C:D\rightarrow D\) is an increasing αconcave operator, \(A,B:D\times D\rightarrow D\) are two mixed monotone operators satisfying conditions (\(\mathrm{M}_{2}\))–(\(\mathrm{M}_{4}\)) and also meeting the following hypotheses:
(\(\mathrm{M}_{5}\)) For any \(t\in(0,1)\),
(\(\mathrm{M}_{6}\)) There exists a constant \(\delta_{0}>0\) such that
Then conclusions (2)–(4) of Theorem 3.1 hold.
Remark 3.1
If we take the operator \(B\equiv0\) in Theorem 3.1, Theorem 3.2 and Corollaries 3.1–3.2, Corollaries 3.5–3.7, the corresponding results have been obtained by Zhai in [13]. In this case, our results generalize and improve some known results.
Applications
As the extensive development of the theory for fractional calculus itself, the fractional differential equations have been applied in many research fields, such as physics, chemistry, biology, control theory, economics, signal and image processing, etc. (see [26–29] and the references therein). Note that nonlinear operator theory has been proved to be a valuable tool in dealing with various differential and integral equations. Especially, fixed point method has been shown to be very useful in the study of the existence and uniqueness of solutions for differential equations. Such as in [11–18], the authors use the fixed point theorems of sumtype operators to study the fractional differential equations. In [30], Agarwal et al. apply Schauder’s fixed point theorem, the upper and lower solution method, and topological degree theory to establish existence theory for unbounded solution. In [31], Becker et al. obtain positive solutions of an array of fractional differential equations by Schaefer’s fixed point theorem. In [32], by means of fixed point methods combined with Karamata regular variation theory, Masmoudi et al. discuss existence, uniqueness, and boundary behavior of a positive solution to the nonlinear Sturm–Liouville problem. Motivated by the existing research, in this section we consider the following nonlinear fractional differential equation with the multipoint fractional boundary conditions:
where \(D^{\nu}_{0^{+}}\), \(D^{p}_{0^{+}}\), \(D^{q}_{0^{+}}\) are the Riemann–Liouville fractional derivatives. The orders ν, p, \(q\in \mathbb{R}\), and they satisfy \(\nu\in(n1,n]\), \(p \in[1,n2]\), \(q\in[0,p]\), and \(n\in\mathbb{N} \), \(n\geq3\). \(\xi_{i}\in\mathbb{R}\) for all \(i=1,2,\ldots,m(m\in \mathbb{N})\), \(0<\xi_{1}<\cdots<\xi_{m}<1\). \(a_{i}\geq0\) for all \(i=1,2,\ldots,m(m\in\mathbb{N})\).
By applying the fixed point theorems of sumtype operator obtained in Sect. 3, we focus on studying the existence and uniqueness of positive solution for problem (4.1), and also on constructing two sequences uniformly converging to the unique positive solution.
In the following, we will work in the Banach apace \(E=C[0,1]=\{x:[0,1] \rightarrow\mathbb{R}\mbox{ is continuous}\}\) with the standard norm \(\x\=\sup\{x(t):t\in[0,1]\}\). Notice that this space can be equipped with a partial order given by
Set \(P=\{x\in C[0,1]\mid x(t)\geq0,t\in[0,1]\}\), the standard cone. It is clear that P is a normal cone in E and the normality constant is 1.
Definition 4.1
([28])
Let \(\nu>0\). Suppose that \(u:(0,+\infty)\rightarrow\mathbb{R}\) is a continuous function. Then the Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative of order ν for the function u is defined as
where \(n=[\nu]+1\) with \([\nu]\) standing for the largest integer less than the number ν. \(\Gamma(\nu)\) is the Euler gamma function defined by
Lemma 4.1
(see Lemmas 1 and 2 in [33])
Assume that \(\widetilde{x}\in C[0,1]\cap L^{1}(0,1)\) is a continuous function. Then \(u\in C[0,1]\) is the solution of the fractional boundary value problem:
where \(a_{i}\geq0\), \(\xi_{i}\in\mathbb{R}\) for all \(i=1,2,\ldots ,m(m\in\mathbb{N})\) and \(0<\xi_{1}<\cdots<\xi_{m}<1\), \(\frac{1}{\Gamma (\nup)}\frac{1}{\Gamma(\nuq)}\sum_{i=1}^{m}a_{i}\xi_{i}^{\nu q1}>0\), if and only if u satisfies the integral equation
where \(G(t,s)\) is called the fractional Green function, which can be written as
with
and
By Lemmas 3 and 4 in [33], we can easily obtain that the Green function \(G(t,s)\) defined by (4.2) has the following properties.
Lemma 4.2
The function \(G(t,s)\) satisfies the following conditions:

(1)
\(G(t,s)\) is continuous on the unit square \([0,1]\times[0,1]\);

(2)
\(G(t,s)\geq0\) for each \((t,s)\in[0,1]\times[0,1]\);

(3)
\(t^{\nu1}J(s)\leq G(t,s) \leq\sigma t^{\nu1},\quad \forall t, s\in[0,1]\),
where
with Δ defined in (4.3).
Theorem 4.1
Assume the following conditions:
 \((H_{1})\) :

\(f, g: [0,1]\times[0,+\infty)\times[0,+\infty)\rightarrow [0,+\infty)\) and \(h: [0,1]\times[0,+\infty)\rightarrow[0,+\infty)\) are continuous with \(f(t,0,1)\not\equiv0\), \(g(t,0,1)\not\equiv0\), and \(h(t,0)\not\equiv0\);
 \((H_{2})\) :

\(f(t,u,v)\), \(g(t,u,v)\) are increasing in \(u\in[0,+\infty)\) for fixed \(t\in[0,1]\) and \(v\in[0,+\infty)\), decreasing in \(v\in [0,+\infty)\) for fixed \(t\in[0,1]\) and \(u\in[0,+\infty)\); \(g(t,u)\) is increasing in \(u\in[0,+\infty)\) for fixed \(t\in[0,1]\);
 \((H_{3})\) :

For any \(\lambda\in(0,1)\), there exists a constant \(\alpha\in (0,1)\) such that \(\forall t\in[0,1]\), \(u,v\in[0,+\infty)\), \(f(t,\lambda u,\lambda^{1} v)\geq\lambda^{\alpha}f(t,u,v)\); for fixed \(t\in[0,1]\), \(v\in[0,+\infty)\), \(g(t,\cdot, v)\) is concave, for fixed \(t\in[0,1]\), \(u\in[0,+\infty)\), \(g(t,u,\cdot)\) is convex; and for all \(\lambda\in(0,1)\), \(\forall t\in[0,1]\), \(u\in[0,+\infty)\), \(h(t,\lambda u)\geq\lambda h(t,u)\);
 \((H_{4})\) :

There exists \(\frac{1}{2}\leq b\leq1\) such that \(g(t,0,lh(t))\geq bg(t,lh(t),0)\), \(\forall l\geq1\);
 \((H_{5})\) :

There exists a constant \(\delta_{0}>0\) such that \(f(t,u,v)\geq\delta_{0}(g(t,u,v)+h(t,u))\), \(t\in[0,1]\), \(u, v\in [0,+\infty)\).

(1)
There exist \(u_{0},v_{0}\in P_{h}\) and \(r\in(0,1)\) such that \(rv_{0}\leq u_{0}< v_{0}\) and
$$ \textstyle\begin{cases} u_{0}(t)\leq\int _{0}^{1}G(t,s)[f(s,u_{0}(s),v_{0}(s))+g(s,u_{0}(s),v_{0}(s))+h(s,u_{0}(s))]\,ds,&t\in [0,1],\\ v_{0}(t)\geq\int _{0}^{1}G(t,s)[f(s,v_{0}(s),u_{0}(s))+g(s,v_{0}(s),u_{0}(s))+h(s,v_{0}(s))]\,ds,&t\in [0,1], \end{cases} $$where \(h(t)=t^{\alpha1}\), \(t\in[0,1]\);

(2)
Problem (4.1) has a unique positive solution \(u^{\ast}\) in \(P_{h}\);

(3)
For any \(x_{0}, y_{0}\in P_{h}\), constructing successively the sequences
$$ \textstyle\begin{cases} x_{n+1}(t)= \int _{0}^{1}G(t,s)[f(s,x_{n}(s),y_{n}(s))+g(s,x_{n}(s),y_{n}(s))+h(s,x_{n}(s))]\,ds,&n=0,1,2,\ldots ,\\ y_{n+1}(t)= \int _{0}^{1}G(t,s)[f(s,y_{n}(s),x_{n}(s))+g(s,y_{n}(s),x_{n}(s))+h(s,y_{n}(s))]\,ds,&n=0,1,2,\ldots , \end{cases} $$we have both \({x_{n}(t)}\) and \({y_{n}(t)}\) converge uniformly to \(u^{\ast}(t)\) for all \(t\in[0,1]\).
Proof
To begin with, we define three operators \(A:P\times P\rightarrow E\); \(B:P\times P\rightarrow E\); \(C:P\rightarrow E\) by
Set \(\widetilde{x}(t)=f(t,u(t),u(t))+g(t,u(t),u(t))+h(t,u(t))\) in Lemma 4.1, it is easy to prove that u is the solution of problem (4.1) if and only if it is a fixed point of the operator equation \(u=A(u,u)+B(u,u)+Cu\). In the sequel, we check that A, B, C satisfy all the assumptions of Theorem 3.1.
Firstly, it follows from \((H_{1})\) and the fact \(G(t,s)\geq0\), \(\forall t, s\in[0,1]\) that \(A, B : P\times P\rightarrow P\) and \(C : P\rightarrow P\). Further, by \((H_{2})\), we can easily obtain A, B are two monotone operators, and C is an increasing operator.
Secondly, we show that \(A,B\) satisfy conditions (3.1)–(3.3) and C is a subhomogeneous operator. In fact, for any \(\lambda\in(0,1)\) and \(u, v \in P\), by \((H_{3})\) we have
that is \(A(\lambda u,\lambda^{1}v)\geq\lambda^{\alpha}A(u,v)\) for \(\lambda\in(0,1)\), \(u,v \in P\), which satisfies (3.1).
Also, for fixed \(t\in(0,1)\), \(v\in P\), for any \(a\in(0,1)\), \(u_{1}, u_{2}\in P\),
which means \(B(au_{1}+(1a)u_{2},v)\geq aB(u_{1},v)+(1a)B(u_{2},v)\). So, for fixed \(v\in P\), \(B(t,\cdot,v):P\rightarrow P\) is concave. Besides, for any \(a\in(0,1)\), \(v_{1}, v_{2}\in P\),
which implies \(B(u,av_{1}+(1a)v_{2})\leq aB(u,v_{1})+(1a)B(u,v_{2})\), hence for fixed \(u\in P\), \(C(t,u,\cdot):P\rightarrow P\) is convex and satisfies (3.3). Furthermore, for any \(\lambda\in(0,1)\), \(u\in P\), from \((H_{3})\) we know that
that is, \(C(\lambda u)\geq\lambda Cu\) for \(\lambda\in(0,1)\), \(u\in P\) and the operator C is subhomogeneous.
Thirdly, we prove that condition \((L_{3})\) of Theorem 3.1 is satisfied. From \((H_{4})\), there exists \(b\in[\frac{1}{2}, 1]\) such that
Fourthly, we show that \(A(h,h)\in P_{h}\), \(B(h,h)\in P_{h}\) and \(Ch\in P_{h}\). Let \(h\in P_{h}\) be defined by \(h(t)=t^{\nu1}\), \(t\in[0,1]\). We can obtain that \(h(t)\in[0,1]\). From \((H_{2})\) and Lemma 4.2, we deduce
where \(J(s)\) and σ are defined by (4.4), (4.5). Denote
Then we have \(c_{1}h\leq A(h,h)\leq c_{2}h\). It follows from \((H_{2})\), \((H_{1})\) that
Since \(f(t,0,1)\not\equiv0\), we get
Hence, we have \(c_{1}>0\), \(c_{2}>0\), which means \(A(h,h)\in P_{h}\).
Similarly,
According to the fact that \(g(t,0,1)\not\equiv0\), \(h(t,0)\not\equiv0\), we easily prove \(B(h,h)\in P_{h}\), \(Ch\in P_{h}\). As a result, condition \((L_{4})\) of Theorem 3.1 is satisfied.
Lastly, we show that condition \((L_{5})\) of Theorem 3.1 holds true for \(u,v\in P\) and any \(t\in[0,1]\). From \((H_{5})\), we derive that
then we get \(A(u,v)\geq\delta_{0}(B(u,v)+Cu)\) for \(u,v\in P\). So all the conditions of Theorem 3.1 are satisfied. An application of Theorem 3.1 implies that problem (4.1) has a unique positive solution \(u^{\ast}\) in \(P_{h}\) and also conclusions \((1)\) and \((3)\) in Theorem 4.1 hold true. □
By using Theorem 3.2, we can easily prove the following result.
Theorem 4.2
Assume that \((H_{1})\), \((H_{2})\), and \((H_{4})\) hold, and the following conditions are also satisfied.
\((H_{6})\) \(f(t,\lambda u,\lambda^{1} v)\geq\lambda f(t,u,v)\), \(\forall t\in[0,1]\), \(\lambda\in(0,1)\), \(u,v\in[0,+\infty)\); for fixed \(t\in[0,1]\), \(v\in[0,+\infty)\), \(g(t,\cdot, v)\) is concave, for fixed \(t\in[0,1]\), \(u\in[0,+\infty)\), \(g(t,u,\cdot)\) is convex; and there exists a constant \(\alpha\in(0,1)\) such that \(h(t,\lambda u)\geq \lambda^{\alpha} h(t,u)\) for \(\lambda\in(0,1)\), \(t\in[0,1]\), \(u\in [0,+\infty)\);
\((H_{7})\) There exists a constant \(\delta_{0}>0\) such that \(f(t,u,v)+g(t,u,v)\leq\delta_{0} h(t,u)\), \(\forall t\in[0,1]\), \(u,v\in[0,+\infty)\).
Then, conclusions (1)–(3) of Theorem 4.1 still hold.
In what follows, we give a concrete example to illustrate our main result.
Example 4.1
Consider the following problem:
where
and \(s:[0,1]\rightarrow[0,+\infty)\) is continuous with \(s\neq0\). Here we set \(s_{\mathrm{max}}=\max\{s(t):t\in[0,1]\}>0\).
This example can be written in the form of (4.1) with the functions f, g, h defined by
Next, we show that all the conditions of Theorem 4.1 are satisfied.

(1)
\(f,g:[0,1] \times[0,+\infty)\times[0,+\infty)\rightarrow [0,+\infty)\) and \(h:[0,1]\times[0,+\infty)\rightarrow[0,+\infty)\) are continuous with \(f(t,0,1)=4+2^{\frac{1}{2}}t^{2}\not\equiv0\), \(g(t,0,1)=\frac{5}{3}+\frac{1}{3e}t^{2}\not\equiv0\), \(h(t,0)=1\neq0\).

(2)
Obviously, \(f(t,x,y)\), \(g(t,x,y)\) are increasing in \(x\in[0,+\infty )\) for fixed \(t\in[0,1]\) and \(y\in[0,+\infty)\), decreasing in \(y\in [0,+\infty)\) for fixed \(t\in[0,1]\) and \(x\in[0,+\infty)\), and \(h(t,x)\) is increasing in \(x\in[0,+\infty)\) for fixed \(t\in[0,1]\).

(3)
For \(\lambda\in(0,1)\), \(t\in[0,1]\), \(x,y\in[0,+\infty)\), taking \(\alpha=\frac{1}{2}\), we have
$$ \begin{aligned} f\bigl(t,\lambda x,\lambda^{1} y\bigr)&=( \lambda x+1)^{\frac{1}{2}}+\bigl(\lambda ^{1} y+1\bigr)^{\frac{1}{2}}+3t^{2} \\ &\geq\lambda^{\frac{1}{2}}\bigl((x+1)^{\frac{1}{2}}+(y+1)^{\frac {1}{2}}+3t^{2} \bigr)=\lambda^{\alpha}f(t,x,y). \end{aligned} $$
For all \(\lambda\in(0,1)\), \(t\in[0,1]\), and \(x\in[0,+\infty)\), we deduce
Besides, we can easily obtain
So, for fixed \(t\in[0,1]\), \(y\in[0,+\infty)\), \(g(t,\cdot,y)\) is concave; for fixed \(t\in(0,1)\), \(x\in[0,+\infty)\), \(g(t,x,\cdot)\) is convex.
(4) For all \(s\in[0,1]\), \(y\in[0,+\infty)\), taking \(b=\frac{1}{2}\), we derive
(5) If we take \(\delta_{0}=\min \{\frac{2}{3(s_{\max}+1)},1 \} \), then we obtain
Hence all the conditions of Theorem 4.1 are satisfied. An application of Theorem 4.1 implies that problem (4.6) has a unique positive solution in \(P_{h}\), where \(h(t)=t^{\nu1}=t^{\frac {13}{4}}\), \(t\in[0,1]\).
Conclusions
In this paper, we investigate a class of nonlinear sumtype operators without considering the existence of upperlower solutions or compactness or continuity. The sufficient conditions have been established for such sumtype operators to have a unique positive fixed point in \(P_{h}\), and two iterative sequences are also constructed to converge to the fixed point. Further, we apply the obtained results to prove the existence and uniqueness of positive solutions for a nonlinear fractional differential equation with multipoint fractional boundary conditions. The main contribution is that we provide a new method to deal with the unique positive solution of the nonlinear differential equations. Our study enriches the fixed point theorems of nonlinear sumtype operators.
References
 1.
Zhao, Z.: Existence and uniqueness of fixed points for some mixed monotone operators. Nonlinear Anal. 73, 1481–1490 (2010)
 2.
Guo, D., Lakshmikantham, V.: Coupled fixed points of nonlinear operators with applications. Nonlinear Anal. 11, 623–632 (1987)
 3.
Amann, H.: On the number of solutions of nonlinear equations in ordered Banach spaces. J. Funct. Anal. 11, 346–384 (1972)
 4.
Li, K., Liang, J., Xiao, T.: A fixed point theorem for convex and decreasing operators. Nonlinear Anal. 63, 209–216 (2005)
 5.
Zhao, Z., Du, X.: Fixed points of generalized econcave (generalized econvex) operators and their applications. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 334, 1426–1438 (2007)
 6.
Zhai, C., Yang, C., Guo, C.: Positive solutions of operator equations on ordered Banach spaces and appliccations. Comput. Math. Appl. 56, 3150–3156 (2008)
 7.
Zhai, C., Cao, X.: Fixed point theorems for τφconcave operators and applications. Comput. Math. Appl. 59, 532–538 (2010)
 8.
Zhao, Z.: Fixed point of τφconvex operators and applications. Appl. Math. Lett. 23, 561–566 (2010)
 9.
Zhai, C., Zhang, L.: New fixed point theorems for mixed monotone operators and local existenceuniqueness of positive solutions for nonlinear boundary value problems. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 382, 594–614 (2011)
 10.
Zhai, C., Wang, L.: φ\((h, e)\)concave operators and applications. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 454, 571–584 (2017)
 11.
Sang, Y.: Existence and uniqueness of fixed points for mixed monotone operator with perturbations. Electron. J. Differ. Equ. 2013, 233 (2013)
 12.
Amor, S.H.: Positive solutions for some boundary value problems via a new fixed point theorem. Positivity 19, 587–602 (2015)
 13.
Zhai, C., Hao, M.: Fixed point theorems for mixed monotone operator with perturbation and application to fractional differential equation boundary value problems. Nonlinear Anal. 75, 2542–2551 (2012)
 14.
Zhai, C., Anderson, D.R.: A sum operator equation and applications to nonlinear elastic beam equations and Lane–Emden–Fowler equations. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 375, 388–400 (2011)
 15.
Zhang, X., Liu, L., Wu, Y.: Fixed point theorems for the sum of three classes of mixed monotone operators and applications. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2016, 49 (2016)
 16.
Liu, L., Zhang, X., Jiang, J., Wu, Y.: The unique solution of a class of sum mixed monotone operator equations and its application to fractional boundary value problems. J. Nonlinear Sci. Appl. 9, 2943–2958 (2016)
 17.
Wang, H., Zhang, L.: The solution for a class of sum operator equation and its application to fractional differential equation boundary value problems. Bound. Value Probl. 2015, 203 (2015)
 18.
Yang, C., Zhai, C., Hao, M.: Uniqueness of positive solutions for several classes of sum operator equations and applications. J. Inequal. Appl. 2014, 58 (2014)
 19.
Azman, I., Jlelia, M., López, B., Sadarangani, K., Samet, B.: Positive solutions for a class of fractional boundary value problems with fractional boundary conditions. J. Nonlinear Sci. Appl. 11, 237–251 (2018)
 20.
Cabrera, I., López, B., Sadarangani, K.: Existence of positive solutions for the nonlinear elastic beam equation via a mixed monotone operator. J. Comput. Appl. Math. 327, 306–313 (2018)
 21.
Feng, H., Zhai, C.: Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions for a class of fractional differential equation with integral boundary conditions. Nonlinear Anal., Model. Control 22, 160–172 (2017)
 22.
Liu, L., Li, H., Liu, C., Wu, Y.: Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions for singular fractional differential systems with coupled integral boundary conditions. J. Nonlinear Sci. Appl. 10, 243–262 (2017)
 23.
Min, D., Liu, L., Wu, Y.: Uniqueness of positive solutions for the singular fractional differential equations involving integral boundary value conditions. Bound. Value Probl. 2018, 23 (2018)
 24.
Deimling, K.: Nonlinear Functional Analysis. Springer, Berlin (1985)
 25.
Guo, D., Lakshmikantham, V.: Nonlinear Problems in Abstract Cones. Academic Press, New York (1988)
 26.
Losa, G., Merlini, D., Nonnenmacher, T., Weibel, E.: Fractals in Biology and Medicine. Birkhäuser, Basel (1998)
 27.
Hilfer, R.: Applications of Fractional Calculus in Physics. World Scientific, Singapore (2000)
 28.
Lakshmikantham, V., Vatsala, A.: Basic theory of fractional differential equations. Nonlinear Anal. 69, 2677–2682 (2008)
 29.
Kilbas, A., Srivastava, H., Trujillo, J.: Theory and Applications of Fractional Differential Equations. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2006)
 30.
Agarwal, R.P., Çetin, E.: Unbounded solutions of third order threepoint boundary value problems on a halfline. Adv. Nonlinear Anal. 5, 105–119 (2016)
 31.
Becker, L.C., Burton, T.A., Purnaras, I.K.: Integral and fractional equations, positive solutions, and Schaefer’s fixed point theorem. Opusc. Math. 36, 431–458 (2016)
 32.
Masmoudi, S., Zermani, S.: Existence and boundary behavior of positive solutions for a Sturm–Liouville problem. Opusc. Math. 36, 613–629 (2016)
 33.
Henderson, J., Luca, R.: Existence of positive solutions for a singular fractional boundary value problem. Nonlinear Anal., Model. Control 22, 99–114 (2017)
Acknowledgements
We are thankful to the editor and the anonymous reviewers for many valuable suggestions to improve this paper.
Availability of data and materials
Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
Funding
This project is supported by the Key Research and Development Plan of Shanxi Province (No. 201703D2210311) and Innovation Project of Shanxi Postgraduate Education (No. 2017BY039).
Author information
Affiliations
Contributions
HW participated in the design of the study and drafted the manuscript. LZ and XW carried out the theoretical studies and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Corresponding author
Correspondence to Lingling Zhang.
Ethics declarations
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Additional information
Publisher’s Note
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
About this article
Received
Accepted
Published
DOI
MSC
 47H10
 47H07
 34B10
 34B18
Keywords
 Sumtype operator
 Existence and uniqueness
 Positive solution
 Fractional differential equation
 Fractional boundary condition